In Files

  • matrix.rb
  • matrix/eigenvalue_decomposition.rb
  • matrix/lup_decomposition.rb
  • matrix/version.rb

Matrix

The Matrix class represents a mathematical matrix. It provides methods for creating matrices, operating on them arithmetically and algebraically, and determining their mathematical properties such as trace, rank, inverse, determinant, or eigensystem.

Constants

VERSION

Attributes

rows[R]

instance creations

Public Class Methods

I(n) click to toggle source
Alias for: identity
[](*rows) click to toggle source

Creates a matrix where each argument is a row.

Matrix[ [25, 93], [-1, 66] ]
   =>  25 93
       -1 66
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 76
def Matrix.[](*rows)
  rows(rows, false)
end
            
build(row_count, column_count = row_count) click to toggle source

Creates a matrix of size row_count x column_count. It fills the values by calling the given block, passing the current row and column. Returns an enumerator if no block is given.

m = Matrix.build(2, 4) {|row, col| col - row }
  => Matrix[[0, 1, 2, 3], [-1, 0, 1, 2]]
m = Matrix.build(3) { rand }
  => a 3x3 matrix with random elements
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 121
def Matrix.build(row_count, column_count = row_count)
  row_count = CoercionHelper.coerce_to_int(row_count)
  column_count = CoercionHelper.coerce_to_int(column_count)
  raise ArgumentError if row_count < 0 || column_count < 0
  return to_enum :build, row_count, column_count unless block_given?
  rows = Array.new(row_count) do |i|
    Array.new(column_count) do |j|
      yield i, j
    end
  end
  new rows, column_count
end
            
column_vector(column) click to toggle source

Creates a single-column matrix where the values of that column are as given in column.

Matrix.column_vector([4,5,6])
  => 4
     5
     6
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 207
def Matrix.column_vector(column)
  column = convert_to_array(column)
  new [column].transpose, 1
end
            
columns(columns) click to toggle source

Creates a matrix using columns as an array of column vectors.

Matrix.columns([[25, 93], [-1, 66]])
   =>  25 -1
       93 66
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 106
def Matrix.columns(columns)
  rows(columns, false).transpose
end
            
combine(*matrices) click to toggle source

Create a matrix by combining matrices entrywise, using the given block

x = Matrix[[6, 6], [4, 4]]
y = Matrix[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
Matrix.combine(x, y) {|a, b| a - b} # => Matrix[[5, 4], [1, 0]]
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 284
def Matrix.combine(*matrices)
  return to_enum(__method__, *matrices) unless block_given?

  return Matrix.empty if matrices.empty?
  matrices.map!(&CoercionHelper.method(:coerce_to_matrix))
  x = matrices.first
  matrices.each do |m|
    raise ErrDimensionMismatch unless x.row_count == m.row_count && x.column_count == m.column_count
  end

  rows = Array.new(x.row_count) do |i|
    Array.new(x.column_count) do |j|
      yield matrices.map{|m| m[i,j]}
    end
  end
  new rows, x.column_count
end
            
diagonal(*values) click to toggle source

Creates a matrix where the diagonal elements are composed of values.

Matrix.diagonal(9, 5, -3)
  =>  9  0  0
      0  5  0
      0  0 -3
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 141
def Matrix.diagonal(*values)
  size = values.size
  return Matrix.empty if size == 0
  rows = Array.new(size) {|j|
    row = Array.new(size, 0)
    row[j] = values[j]
    row
  }
  new rows
end
            
empty(row_count = 0, column_count = 0) click to toggle source

Creates a empty matrix of row_count x column_count. At least one of row_count or column_count must be 0.

m = Matrix.empty(2, 0)
m == Matrix[ [], [] ]
  => true
n = Matrix.empty(0, 3)
n == Matrix.columns([ [], [], [] ])
  => true
m * n
  => Matrix[[0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0]]
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 225
def Matrix.empty(row_count = 0, column_count = 0)
  raise ArgumentError, "One size must be 0" if column_count != 0 && row_count != 0
  raise ArgumentError, "Negative size" if column_count < 0 || row_count < 0

  new([[]]*row_count, column_count)
end
            
hstack(x, *matrices) click to toggle source

Create a matrix by stacking matrices horizontally

x = Matrix[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
y = Matrix[[5, 6], [7, 8]]
Matrix.hstack(x, y) # => Matrix[[1, 2, 5, 6], [3, 4, 7, 8]]
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 260
def Matrix.hstack(x, *matrices)
  x = CoercionHelper.coerce_to_matrix(x)
  result = x.send(:rows).map(&:dup)
  total_column_count = x.column_count
  matrices.each do |m|
    m = CoercionHelper.coerce_to_matrix(m)
    if m.row_count != x.row_count
      raise ErrDimensionMismatch, "The given matrices must have #{x.row_count} rows, but one has #{m.row_count}"
    end
    result.each_with_index do |row, i|
      row.concat m.send(:rows)[i]
    end
    total_column_count += m.column_count
  end
  new result, total_column_count
end
            
identity(n) click to toggle source

Creates an n by n identity matrix.

Matrix.identity(2)
  => 1 0
     0 1
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 169
def Matrix.identity(n)
  scalar(n, 1)
end
            
Also aliased as: unit, I
new(rows, column_count = rows[0].size) click to toggle source

::new is private; use ::rows, columns, [], etc… to create.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 309
def initialize(rows, column_count = rows[0].size)
  # No checking is done at this point. rows must be an Array of Arrays.
  # column_count must be the size of the first row, if there is one,
  # otherwise it *must* be specified and can be any integer >= 0
  @rows = rows
  @column_count = column_count
end
            
row_vector(row) click to toggle source

Creates a single-row matrix where the values of that row are as given in row.

Matrix.row_vector([4,5,6])
  => 4 5 6
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 194
def Matrix.row_vector(row)
  row = convert_to_array(row)
  new [row]
end
            
rows(rows, copy = true) click to toggle source

Creates a matrix where rows is an array of arrays, each of which is a row of the matrix. If the optional argument copy is false, use the given arrays as the internal structure of the matrix without copying.

Matrix.rows([[25, 93], [-1, 66]])
   =>  25 93
       -1 66
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 88
def Matrix.rows(rows, copy = true)
  rows = convert_to_array(rows, copy)
  rows.map! do |row|
    convert_to_array(row, copy)
  end
  size = (rows[0] || []).size
  rows.each do |row|
    raise ErrDimensionMismatch, "row size differs (#{row.size} should be #{size})" unless row.size == size
  end
  new rows, size
end
            
scalar(n, value) click to toggle source

Creates an n by n diagonal matrix where each diagonal element is value.

Matrix.scalar(2, 5)
  => 5 0
     0 5
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 159
def Matrix.scalar(n, value)
  diagonal(*Array.new(n, value))
end
            
unit(n) click to toggle source
Alias for: identity
vstack(x, *matrices) click to toggle source

Create a matrix by stacking matrices vertically

x = Matrix[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
y = Matrix[[5, 6], [7, 8]]
Matrix.vstack(x, y) # => Matrix[[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6], [7, 8]]
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 239
def Matrix.vstack(x, *matrices)
  x = CoercionHelper.coerce_to_matrix(x)
  result = x.send(:rows).map(&:dup)
  matrices.each do |m|
    m = CoercionHelper.coerce_to_matrix(m)
    if m.column_count != x.column_count
      raise ErrDimensionMismatch, "The given matrices must have #{x.column_count} columns, but one has #{m.column_count}"
    end
    result.concat(m.send(:rows))
  end
  new result, x.column_count
end
            
zero(row_count, column_count = row_count) click to toggle source

Creates a zero matrix.

Matrix.zero(2)
  => 0 0
     0 0
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 183
def Matrix.zero(row_count, column_count = row_count)
  rows = Array.new(row_count){Array.new(column_count, 0)}
  new rows, column_count
end
            

Public Instance Methods

combine(*matrices, &block) click to toggle source
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 302
def combine(*matrices, &block)
  Matrix.combine(self, *matrices, &block)
end