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Set

Set implements a collection of unordered values with no duplicates. This is a hybrid of Array's intuitive inter-operation facilities and Hash's fast lookup.

The equality of each couple of elements is determined according to Object#eql? and Object#hash, since Set uses Hash as storage.

Set is easy to use with Enumerable objects (implementing each). Most of the initializer methods and binary operators accept generic Enumerable objects besides sets and arrays. An Enumerable object can be converted to Set using the to_set method.

Comparison

The comparison operators <, >, <= and >= are implemented as shorthand for the {proper_,}{subset?,superset?} methods. However, the <=> operator is intentionally left out because not every pair of sets is comparable. ({x,y} vs. {x,z} for example)

Example

require 'set'
s1 = Set.new [1, 2]                   # -> #<Set: {1, 2}>
s2 = [1, 2].to_set                    # -> #<Set: {1, 2}>
s1 == s2                              # -> true
s1.add("foo")                         # -> #<Set: {1, 2, "foo"}>
s1.merge([2, 6])                      # -> #<Set: {6, 1, 2, "foo"}>
s1.subset? s2                         # -> false
s2.subset? s1                         # -> true

Contact

- Akinori MUSHA <knu@iDaemons.org> (current maintainer)

Public Class Methods

[](*ary) click to toggle source

Creates a new set containing the given objects.

 
               # File set.rb, line 64
def self.[](*ary)
  new(ary)
end
            
new(enum = nil) click to toggle source

Creates a new set containing the elements of the given enumerable object.

If a block is given, the elements of enum are preprocessed by the given block.

 
               # File set.rb, line 73
def initialize(enum = nil, &block) # :yields: o
  @hash ||= Hash.new

  enum.nil? and return

  if block
    do_with_enum(enum) { |o| add(block[o]) }
  else
    merge(enum)
  end
end
            

Public Instance Methods

&(enum) click to toggle source

Returns a new set containing elements common to the set and the given enumerable object.

 
               # File set.rb, line 350
def &(enum)
  n = self.class.new
  do_with_enum(enum) { |o| n.add(o) if include?(o) }
  n
end
            
Also aliased as: intersection
+(enum) click to toggle source
Alias for: |
-(enum) click to toggle source

Returns a new set built by duplicating the set, removing every element that appears in the given enumerable object.

 
               # File set.rb, line 343
def -(enum)
  dup.subtract(enum)
end
            
Also aliased as: difference
<(set) click to toggle source
Alias for: proper_subset?
<<(o) click to toggle source
Alias for: add
<=(set) click to toggle source
Alias for: subset?
==(other) click to toggle source

Returns true if two sets are equal. The equality of each couple of elements is defined according to Object#eql?.

 
               # File set.rb, line 368
def ==(other)
  if self.equal?(other)
    true
  elsif other.instance_of?(self.class)
    @hash == other.instance_variable_get(:@hash)
  elsif other.is_a?(Set) && self.size == other.size
    other.all? { |o| @hash.include?(o) }
  else
    false
  end
end
            
>(set) click to toggle source
Alias for: proper_superset?
>=(set) click to toggle source
Alias for: superset?
^(enum) click to toggle source

Returns a new set containing elements exclusive between the set and the given enumerable object. (set ^ enum) is equivalent to ((set | enum) - (set & enum)).

 
               # File set.rb, line 360
def ^(enum)
  n = Set.new(enum)
  each { |o| if n.include?(o) then n.delete(o) else n.add(o) end }
  n
end
            
add(o) click to toggle source

Adds the given object to the set and returns self. Use merge to add many elements at once.

 
               # File set.rb, line 238
def add(o)
  @hash[o] = true
  self
end
            
Also aliased as: <<
add?(o) click to toggle source

Adds the given object to the set and returns self. If the object is already in the set, returns nil.

 
               # File set.rb, line 246
def add?(o)
  if include?(o)
    nil
  else
    add(o)
  end
end
            
classify() click to toggle source

Classifies the set by the return value of the given block and returns a hash of {value => set of elements} pairs. The block is called once for each element of the set, passing the element as parameter.

e.g.:

require 'set'
files = Set.new(Dir.glob("*.rb"))
hash = files.classify { |f| File.mtime(f).year }
p hash    # => {2000=>#<Set: {"a.rb", "b.rb"}>,
          #     2001=>#<Set: {"c.rb", "d.rb", "e.rb"}>,
          #     2002=>#<Set: {"f.rb"}>}
 
               # File set.rb, line 402
def classify # :yields: o
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)

  h = {}

  each { |i|
    x = yield(i)
    (h[x] ||= self.class.new).add(i)
  }

  h
end
            
clear() click to toggle source

Removes all elements and returns self.

 
               # File set.rb, line 131
def clear
  @hash.clear
  self
end
            
collect!() click to toggle source

Replaces the elements with ones returned by collect().

 
               # File set.rb, line 288
def collect!
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  set = self.class.new
  each { |o| set << yield(o) }
  replace(set)
end
            
Also aliased as: map!
delete(o) click to toggle source

Deletes the given object from the set and returns self. Use subtract to delete many items at once.

 
               # File set.rb, line 256
def delete(o)
  @hash.delete(o)
  self
end
            
delete?(o) click to toggle source

Deletes the given object from the set and returns self. If the object is not in the set, returns nil.

 
               # File set.rb, line 263
def delete?(o)
  if include?(o)
    delete(o)
  else
    nil
  end
end
            
delete_if() click to toggle source

Deletes every element of the set for which block evaluates to true, and returns self.

 
               # File set.rb, line 273
def delete_if
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  to_a.each { |o| @hash.delete(o) if yield(o) }
  self
end
            
difference(enum) click to toggle source
Alias for: -
divide(&func) click to toggle source

Divides the set into a set of subsets according to the commonality defined by the given block.

If the arity of the block is 2, elements o1 and o2 are in common if block.call(o1, o2) is true. Otherwise, elements o1 and o2 are in common if block.call(o1) == block.call(o2).

e.g.:

require 'set'
numbers = Set[1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 11]
set = numbers.divide { |i,j| (i - j).abs == 1 }
p set     # => #<Set: {#<Set: {1}>,
          #            #<Set: {11, 9, 10}>,
          #            #<Set: {3, 4}>,
          #            #<Set: {6}>}>
 
               # File set.rb, line 431
def divide(&func)
  func or return enum_for(__method__)

  if func.arity == 2
    require 'tsort'

    class << dig = {}         # :nodoc:
      include TSort

      alias tsort_each_node each_key
      def tsort_each_child(node, &block)
        fetch(node).each(&block)
      end
    end

    each { |u|
      dig[u] = a = []
      each{ |v| func.call(u, v) and a << v }
    }

    set = Set.new()
    dig.each_strongly_connected_component { |css|
      set.add(self.class.new(css))
    }
    set
  else
    Set.new(classify(&func).values)
  end
end
            
each(&block) click to toggle source

Calls the given block once for each element in the set, passing the element as parameter. Returns an enumerator if no block is given.

 
               # File set.rb, line 230
def each(&block)
  block or return enum_for(__method__)
  @hash.each_key(&block)
  self
end
            
empty?() click to toggle source

Returns true if the set contains no elements.

 
               # File set.rb, line 126
def empty?
  @hash.empty?
end
            
flatten() click to toggle source

Returns a new set that is a copy of the set, flattening each containing set recursively.

 
               # File set.rb, line 175
def flatten
  self.class.new.flatten_merge(self)
end
            
flatten!() click to toggle source

Equivalent to #flatten, but replaces the receiver with the result in place. Returns nil if no modifications were made.

 
               # File set.rb, line 181
def flatten!
  if detect { |e| e.is_a?(Set) }
    replace(flatten())
  else
    nil
  end
end
            
include?(o) click to toggle source

Returns true if the set contains the given object.

 
               # File set.rb, line 190
def include?(o)
  @hash.include?(o)
end
            
Also aliased as: member?
initialize_copy(orig) click to toggle source

Copy internal hash.

 
               # File set.rb, line 97
def initialize_copy(orig)
  @hash = orig.instance_variable_get(:@hash).dup
end
            
inspect() click to toggle source

Returns a string containing a human-readable representation of the set. (“#<Set: {element1, element2, …}>”)

 
               # File set.rb, line 465
def inspect
  ids = (Thread.current[InspectKey] ||= [])

  if ids.include?(object_id)
    return sprintf('#<%s: {...}>', self.class.name)
  end

  begin
    ids << object_id
    return sprintf('#<%s: {%s}>', self.class, to_a.inspect[1..-2])
  ensure
    ids.pop
  end
end
            
intersection(enum) click to toggle source
Alias for: &
keep_if() click to toggle source

Deletes every element of the set for which block evaluates to false, and returns self.

 
               # File set.rb, line 281
def keep_if
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  to_a.each { |o| @hash.delete(o) unless yield(o) }
  self
end
            
length() click to toggle source
Alias for: size
map!() click to toggle source
Alias for: collect!
member?(o) click to toggle source
Alias for: include?
merge(enum) click to toggle source

Merges the elements of the given enumerable object to the set and returns self.

 
               # File set.rb, line 316
def merge(enum)
  if enum.instance_of?(self.class)
    @hash.update(enum.instance_variable_get(:@hash))
  else
    do_with_enum(enum) { |o| add(o) }
  end

  self
end
            
proper_subset?(set) click to toggle source

Returns true if the set is a proper subset of the given set.

 
               # File set.rb, line 220
def proper_subset?(set)
  set.is_a?(Set) or raise ArgumentError, "value must be a set"
  return false if set.size <= size
  all? { |o| set.include?(o) }
end
            
Also aliased as: <
proper_superset?(set) click to toggle source

Returns true if the set is a proper superset of the given set.

 
               # File set.rb, line 204
def proper_superset?(set)
  set.is_a?(Set) or raise ArgumentError, "value must be a set"
  return false if size <= set.size
  set.all? { |o| include?(o) }
end
            
Also aliased as: >
reject!(&block) click to toggle source

Equivalent to #delete_if, but returns nil if no changes were made.

 
               # File set.rb, line 298
def reject!(&block)
  block or return enum_for(__method__)
  n = size
  delete_if(&block)
  size == n ? nil : self
end
            
replace(enum) click to toggle source

Replaces the contents of the set with the contents of the given enumerable object and returns self.

 
               # File set.rb, line 138
def replace(enum)
  if enum.instance_of?(self.class)
    @hash.replace(enum.instance_variable_get(:@hash))
  else
    clear
    merge(enum)
  end

  self
end
            
select!(&block) click to toggle source

Equivalent to #keep_if, but returns nil if no changes were made.

 
               # File set.rb, line 307
def select!(&block)
  block or return enum_for(__method__)
  n = size
  keep_if(&block)
  size == n ? nil : self
end
            
size() click to toggle source

Returns the number of elements.

 
               # File set.rb, line 120
def size
  @hash.size
end
            
Also aliased as: length
subset?(set) click to toggle source

Returns true if the set is a subset of the given set.

 
               # File set.rb, line 212
def subset?(set)
  set.is_a?(Set) or raise ArgumentError, "value must be a set"
  return false if set.size < size
  all? { |o| set.include?(o) }
end
            
Also aliased as: <=
subtract(enum) click to toggle source

Deletes every element that appears in the given enumerable object and returns self.

 
               # File set.rb, line 328
def subtract(enum)
  do_with_enum(enum) { |o| delete(o) }
  self
end
            
superset?(set) click to toggle source

Returns true if the set is a superset of the given set.

 
               # File set.rb, line 196
def superset?(set)
  set.is_a?(Set) or raise ArgumentError, "value must be a set"
  return false if size < set.size
  set.all? { |o| include?(o) }
end
            
Also aliased as: >=
to_a() click to toggle source

Converts the set to an array. The order of elements is uncertain.

 
               # File set.rb, line 150
def to_a
  @hash.keys
end
            
union(enum) click to toggle source
Alias for: |
|(enum) click to toggle source

Returns a new set built by merging the set and the elements of the given enumerable object.

 
               # File set.rb, line 335
def |(enum)
  dup.merge(enum)
end
            
Also aliased as: +, union

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