In Files

  • file.c
  • io.c

IO

Class IO is the basis for all input and output in Ruby. An I/O stream may be duplexed (that is, bidirectional), and so may use more than one native operating system stream.

Many of the examples in this section use class File, the only standard subclass of IO. The two classes are closely associated.

As used in this section, portname may take any of the following forms.

  • A plain string represents a filename suitable for the underlying operating system.

  • A string starting with “|” indicates a subprocess. The remainder of the string following the “|” is invoked as a process with appropriate input/output channels connected to it.

  • A string equal to “|-” will create another Ruby instance as a subprocess.

Ruby will convert pathnames between different operating system conventions if possible. For instance, on a Windows system the filename “/gumby/ruby/test.rb” will be opened as “\gumby\ruby\test.rb”. When specifying a Windows-style filename in a Ruby string, remember to escape the backslashes:

"c:\\gumby\\ruby\\test.rb"

Our examples here will use the Unix-style forward slashes; File::SEPARATOR can be used to get the platform-specific separator character.

I/O ports may be opened in any one of several different modes, which are shown in this section as mode. The mode may either be a Fixnum or a String. If numeric, it should be one of the operating system specific constants (O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, O_RDWR, O_APPEND and so on). See man open(2) for more information.

If the mode is given as a String, it must be one of the values listed in the following table.

Mode |  Meaning
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
"r"  |  Read-only, starts at beginning of file  (default mode).
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
"r+" |  Read-write, starts at beginning of file.
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
"w"  |  Write-only, truncates existing file
     |  to zero length or creates a new file for writing.
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
"w+" |  Read-write, truncates existing file to zero length
     |  or creates a new file for reading and writing.
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
"a"  |  Write-only, starts at end of file if file exists,
     |  otherwise creates a new file for writing.
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
"a+" |  Read-write, starts at end of file if file exists,
     |  otherwise creates a new file for reading and
     |  writing.
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
 "b" |  Binary file mode (may appear with
     |  any of the key letters listed above).
     |  Suppresses EOL <-> CRLF conversion on Windows. And
     |  sets external encoding to ASCII-8BIT unless explicitly
     |  specified.
-----+--------------------------------------------------------
 "t" |  Text file mode (may appear with
     |  any of the key letters listed above except "b").

The global constant ARGF (also accessible as $<) provides an IO-like stream which allows access to all files mentioned on the command line (or STDIN if no files are mentioned). ARGF provides the methods #path and #filename to access the name of the file currently being read.

Public Class Methods

binread(name, [length [, offset]] ) => string click to toggle source

Opens the file, optionally seeks to the given offset, then returns length bytes (defaulting to the rest of the file). read ensures the file is closed before returning. The open mode would be “rb:ASCII-8BIT”.

IO.binread("testfile")           #=> "This is line one\nThis is line two\nThis is line three\nAnd so on...\n"
IO.binread("testfile", 20)       #=> "This is line one\nThi"
IO.binread("testfile", 20, 10)   #=> "ne one\nThis is line "
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_binread(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE offset;
    struct foreach_arg arg;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "12", NULL, NULL, &offset);
    FilePathValue(argv[0]);
    arg.io = rb_io_open(argv[0], rb_str_new_cstr("rb:ASCII-8BIT"), Qnil, Qnil);
    if (NIL_P(arg.io)) return Qnil;
    arg.argv = argv+1;
    arg.argc = (argc > 1) ? 1 : 0;
    if (!NIL_P(offset)) {
        rb_io_seek(arg.io, offset, SEEK_SET);
    }
    return rb_ensure(io_s_read, (VALUE)&arg, rb_io_close, arg.io);
}
            
copy_stream(src, dst) click to toggle source
copy_stream(src, dst, copy_length)
copy_stream(src, dst, copy_length, src_offset)

::copy_stream copies src to dst. src and dst is either a filename or an IO.

This method returns the number of bytes copied.

If optional arguments are not given, the start position of the copy is the beginning of the filename or the current file offset of the IO. The end position of the copy is the end of file.

If copy_length is given, No more than copy_length bytes are copied.

If src_offset is given, it specifies the start position of the copy.

When src_offset is specified and src is an IO, ::copy_stream doesn’t move the current file offset.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_copy_stream(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE src, dst, length, src_offset;
    struct copy_stream_struct st;

    MEMZERO(&st, struct copy_stream_struct, 1);

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "22", &src, &dst, &length, &src_offset);

    st.src = src;
    st.dst = dst;

    if (NIL_P(length))
        st.copy_length = (off_t)-1;
    else
        st.copy_length = NUM2OFFT(length);

    if (NIL_P(src_offset))
        st.src_offset = (off_t)-1;
    else
        st.src_offset = NUM2OFFT(src_offset);

    rb_ensure(copy_stream_body, (VALUE)&st, copy_stream_finalize, (VALUE)&st);

    return OFFT2NUM(st.total);
}
            
for_fd(fd, mode [, opt]) => io click to toggle source

Synonym for IO.new.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_for_fd(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE io = rb_obj_alloc(klass);
    rb_io_initialize(argc, argv, io);
    return io;
}
            
foreach(name, sep=$/ [, open_args]) {|line| block } => nil click to toggle source
foreach(name, limit [, open_args]) {|line| block } => nil
foreach(name, sep, limit [, open_args]) {|line| block } => nil

Executes the block for every line in the named I/O port, where lines are separated by sep.

IO.foreach("testfile") {|x| print "GOT ", x }

produces:

GOT This is line one
GOT This is line two
GOT This is line three
GOT And so on...

If the last argument is a hash, it’s the keyword argument to open. See IO.read for detail.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_foreach(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE self)
{
    struct foreach_arg arg;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "13", NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(self, argc, argv);
    open_key_args(argc, argv, &arg);
    if (NIL_P(arg.io)) return Qnil;
    return rb_ensure(io_s_foreach, (VALUE)&arg, rb_io_close, arg.io);
}
            
new(*args) click to toggle source

Returns a new IO object (a stream) for the given IO object or integer file descriptor and mode string. See also IO#fileno and IO.for_fd.

Parameters

fd

numeric file descriptor

mode

file mode. a string or an integer

opt

hash for specifiying mode by name.

Mode

When mode is an integer it must be combination of the modes defined in File::Constants.

When mode is a string it must be in one of the following forms:

  • “fmode”,

  • “fmode:extern”,

  • “fmode:extern:intern”.

extern is the external encoding name for the IO. intern is the internal encoding. fmode must be combination of the directives. See the description of class IO for a description of the directives.

Options

opt can have the following keys

:mode

same as mode parameter

:external_encoding

external encoding for the IO. “-” is a synonym for the default external encoding.

:internal_encoding

internal encoding for the IO. “-” is a synonym for the default internal encoding. If the value is nil no conversion occurs.

:encoding

specifies external and internal encodings as “extern:intern”.

:textmode

If the value is truth value, same as “b” in argument mode.

:binmode

If the value is truth value, same as “t” in argument mode.

Also opt can have same keys in String#encode for controlling conversion between the external encoding and the internal encoding.

Example1

a = IO.new(2,"w")      # '2' is standard error
$stderr.puts "Hello"
a.puts "World"

produces:

Hello
World

Example2

io = IO.new(2, mode: 'w:UTF-16LE', cr_newline: true)
io.puts "Hello, World!"

io = IO.new(2, mode: 'w', cr_newline: true, external_encoding: Encoding::UTF_16LE)
io.puts "Hello, World!"

both of aboves print “Hello, World!” in UTF-16LE to standard error output with converting EOL generated by puts to CR.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_new(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        const char *cname = rb_class2name(klass);

        rb_warn("%s::new() does not take block; use %s::open() instead",
                cname, cname);
    }
    return rb_class_new_instance(argc, argv, klass);
}
            
open(fd, mode_string="r" [, opt] ) => io click to toggle source
open(fd, mode_string="r" [, opt] ) {|io| block } => obj

With no associated block, open is a synonym for IO.new. If the optional code block is given, it will be passed io as an argument, and the IO object will automatically be closed when the block terminates. In this instance, IO.open returns the value of the block.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_open(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    VALUE io = rb_class_new_instance(argc, argv, klass);

    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        return rb_ensure(rb_yield, io, io_close, io);
    }

    return io;
}
            
pipe → [read_io, write_io] click to toggle source
pipe(ext_enc) → [read_io, write_io]
pipe("ext_enc:int_enc" [, opt]) → [read_io, write_io]
pipe(ext_enc, int_enc [, opt]) → [read_io, write_io]

Creates a pair of pipe endpoints (connected to each other) and returns them as a two-element array of IO objects: [ read_io, write_io ]. Not available on all platforms.

If an encoding (encoding name or encoding object) is specified as an optional argument, read string from pipe is tagged with the encoding specified. If the argument is a colon separated two encoding names “A:B”, the read string is converted from encoding A (external encoding) to encoding B (internal encoding), then tagged with B. If two optional arguments are specified, those must be encoding objects or encoding names, and the first one is the external encoding, and the second one is the internal encoding. If the external encoding and the internal encoding is specified, optional hash argument specify the conversion option.

In the example below, the two processes close the ends of the pipe that they are not using. This is not just a cosmetic nicety. The read end of a pipe will not generate an end of file condition if there are any writers with the pipe still open. In the case of the parent process, the rd.read will never return if it does not first issue a wr.close.

rd, wr = IO.pipe

if fork
  wr.close
  puts "Parent got: <#{rd.read}>"
  rd.close
  Process.wait
else
  rd.close
  puts "Sending message to parent"
  wr.write "Hi Dad"
  wr.close
end

produces:

Sending message to parent
Parent got: <Hi Dad>
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_pipe(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    int pipes[2], state;
    VALUE r, w, args[3], v1, v2;
    VALUE opt;
    rb_io_t *fptr, *fptr2;
    int fmode = 0;

    opt = pop_last_hash(&argc, argv);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &v1, &v2);
    if (rb_pipe(pipes) == -1)
        rb_sys_fail(0);

    args[0] = klass;
    args[1] = INT2NUM(pipes[0]);
    args[2] = INT2FIX(O_RDONLY);
    r = rb_protect(io_new_instance, (VALUE)args, &state);
    if (state) {
        close(pipes[0]);
        close(pipes[1]);
        rb_jump_tag(state);
    }
    GetOpenFile(r, fptr);
    io_encoding_set(fptr, v1, v2, opt);
    args[1] = INT2NUM(pipes[1]);
    args[2] = INT2FIX(O_WRONLY);
    w = rb_protect(io_new_instance, (VALUE)args, &state);
    if (state) {
        close(pipes[1]);
        if (!NIL_P(r)) rb_io_close(r);
        rb_jump_tag(state);
    }
    GetOpenFile(w, fptr2);
    rb_io_synchronized(fptr2);

    extract_binmode(opt, &fmode);
    fptr->mode |= fmode;
    fptr2->mode |= fmode;

    return rb_assoc_new(r, w);
}
            
popen(cmd, mode="r" [, opt]) => io click to toggle source
popen(cmd, mode="r" [, opt]) {|io| block } => obj

Runs the specified command as a subprocess; the subprocess’s standard input and output will be connected to the returned IO object. If cmd is a String-”, then a new instance of Ruby is started as the subprocess. If cmd is an Array of String, then it will be used as the subprocess’s argv bypassing a shell. The array can contains a hash at first for environments and a hash at last for options similar to spawn. The default mode for the new file object is “r”, but mode may be set to any of the modes listed in the description for class IO. The last argument opt qualifies mode.

# set IO encoding
nkf_io = IO.popen("nkf -e filename", :external_encoding=>"EUC-JP")
euc_jp_string = nkf_io.read

# discard standard error using spawn option.
# See the document of Kernel.spawn.
ls_io = IO.popen(["ls", "/", :err=>"/dev/null"])
ls_result_with_error = ls_io.read

Raises exceptions which IO.pipe and Kernel.spawn raise.

If a block is given, Ruby will run the command as a child connected to Ruby with a pipe. Ruby’s end of the pipe will be passed as a parameter to the block. At the end of block, Ruby close the pipe and sets $?. In this case IO.popen returns the value of the block.

If a block is given with a cmd of “-”, the block will be run in two separate processes: once in the parent, and once in a child. The parent process will be passed the pipe object as a parameter to the block, the child version of the block will be passed nil, and the child’s standard in and standard out will be connected to the parent through the pipe. Not available on all platforms.

f = IO.popen("uname")
p f.readlines
puts "Parent is #{Process.pid}"
IO.popen("date") { |f| puts f.gets }
IO.popen("-") {|f| $stderr.puts "#{Process.pid} is here, f is #{f}"}
p $?
IO.popen(%wsed -e s|^|<foo>| -e s&$&;zot;&", "r+") {|f|
  f.puts "bar"; f.close_write; puts f.gets
}

produces:

["Linux\n"]
Parent is 26166
Wed Apr  9 08:53:52 CDT 2003
26169 is here, f is
26166 is here, f is #<IO:0x401b3d44>
#<Process::Status: pid=26166,exited(0)>
<foo>bar;zot;
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_popen(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE klass)
{
    const char *modestr;
    VALUE pname, pmode, port, tmp, opt;
    int oflags, fmode;
    convconfig_t convconfig;

    opt = pop_last_hash(&argc, argv);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &pname, &pmode);

    rb_io_extract_modeenc(&pmode, 0, opt, &oflags, &fmode, &convconfig);
    modestr = rb_io_oflags_modestr(oflags);

    tmp = rb_check_array_type(pname);
    if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
        tmp = rb_ary_dup(tmp);
        RBASIC(tmp)->klass = 0;
        port = pipe_open_v(RARRAY_LEN(tmp), RARRAY_PTR(tmp), modestr, fmode, &convconfig);
        rb_ary_clear(tmp);
    }
    else {
        SafeStringValue(pname);
        port = pipe_open_s(pname, modestr, fmode, &convconfig);
    }
    if (NIL_P(port)) {
        /* child */
        if (rb_block_given_p()) {
            rb_yield(Qnil);
            rb_io_flush(rb_stdout);
            rb_io_flush(rb_stderr);
            _exit(0);
        }
        return Qnil;
    }
    RBASIC(port)->klass = klass;
    if (rb_block_given_p()) {
        return rb_ensure(rb_yield, port, io_close, port);
    }
    return port;
}
            
read(name, [length [, offset]] ) => string click to toggle source
read(name, [length [, offset]], open_args) => string

Opens the file, optionally seeks to the given offset, then returns length bytes (defaulting to the rest of the file). read ensures the file is closed before returning.

If the last argument is a hash, it specifies option for internal open(). The key would be the following. open_args: is exclusive to others.

encoding: string or encoding

 specifies encoding of the read string.  encoding will be ignored
 if length is specified.

mode: string

 specifies mode argument for open().  it should start with "r"
 otherwise it would cause error.

open_args: array of strings

 specifies arguments for open() as an array.

  IO.read("testfile")           #=> "This is line one\nThis is line two\nThis is line three\nAnd so on...\n"
  IO.read("testfile", 20)       #=> "This is line one\nThi"
  IO.read("testfile", 20, 10)   #=> "ne one\nThis is line "
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_read(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE offset;
    struct foreach_arg arg;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "13", NULL, NULL, &offset, NULL);
    open_key_args(argc, argv, &arg);
    if (NIL_P(arg.io)) return Qnil;
    if (!NIL_P(offset)) {
        rb_io_binmode(arg.io);
        rb_io_seek(arg.io, offset, SEEK_SET);
        if (arg.argc == 2) arg.argc = 1;
    }
    return rb_ensure(io_s_read, (VALUE)&arg, rb_io_close, arg.io);
}
            
readlines(name, sep=$/ [, open_args]) => array click to toggle source
readlines(name, limit [, open_args]) => array
readlines(name, sep, limit [, open_args]) => array

Reads the entire file specified by name as individual lines, and returns those lines in an array. Lines are separated by sep.

a = IO.readlines("testfile")
a[0]   #=> "This is line one\n"

If the last argument is a hash, it’s the keyword argument to open. See IO.read for detail.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_readlines(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    struct foreach_arg arg;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "13", NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    open_key_args(argc, argv, &arg);
    if (NIL_P(arg.io)) return Qnil;
    return rb_ensure(io_s_readlines, (VALUE)&arg, rb_io_close, arg.io);
}
            
select(read_array click to toggle source
[, write_array
[, error_array
[, timeout]]] ) => array or nil

See Kernel#select.

 
               static VALUE
rb_f_select(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE obj)
{
    VALUE timeout;
    struct select_args args;
    struct timeval timerec;
    int i;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "13", &args.read, &args.write, &args.except, &timeout);
    if (NIL_P(timeout)) {
        args.timeout = 0;
    }
    else {
        timerec = rb_time_interval(timeout);
        args.timeout = &timerec;
    }

    for (i = 0; i < sizeof(args.fdsets) / sizeof(args.fdsets[0]); ++i)
        rb_fd_init(&args.fdsets[i]);

#ifdef HAVE_RB_FD_INIT
    return rb_ensure(select_call, (VALUE)&args, select_end, (VALUE)&args);
#else
    return select_internal(args.read, args.write, args.except,
                           args.timeout, args.fdsets);
#endif

}
            
sysopen(path, [mode, [perm]]) => fixnum click to toggle source

Opens the given path, returning the underlying file descriptor as a Fixnum.

IO.sysopen("testfile")   #=> 3
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_sysopen(int argc, VALUE *argv)
{
    VALUE fname, vmode, vperm;
    VALUE intmode;
    int oflags, fd;
    mode_t perm;
    char *path;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "12", &fname, &vmode, &vperm);
    FilePathValue(fname);

    if (NIL_P(vmode))
        oflags = O_RDONLY;
    else if (!NIL_P(intmode = rb_check_to_integer(vmode, "to_int")))
        oflags = NUM2INT(intmode);
    else {
        SafeStringValue(vmode);
        oflags = rb_io_modestr_oflags(StringValueCStr(vmode));
    }
    if (NIL_P(vperm)) perm = 0666;
    else              perm = NUM2UINT(vperm);

    RB_GC_GUARD(fname) = rb_str_new4(fname);
    path = RSTRING_PTR(fname);
    fd = rb_sysopen(path, oflags, perm);
    return INT2NUM(fd);
}
            
try_convert(obj) → io or nil click to toggle source

Try to convert obj into an IO, using #to_io method. Returns converted IO or nil if obj cannot be converted for any reason.

IO.try_convert(STDOUT)     # => STDOUT
IO.try_convert("STDOUT")   # => nil

require 'zlib'
f = open("/tmp/zz.gz")       # => #<File:/tmp/zz.gz>
z = Zlib::GzipReader.open(f) # => #<Zlib::GzipReader:0x81d8744>
IO.try_convert(z)            # => #<File:/tmp/zz.gz>
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_s_try_convert(VALUE dummy, VALUE io)
{
    return rb_io_check_io(io);
}
            

Public Instance Methods

ios << obj => ios click to toggle source

String Output---Writes obj to ios. obj will be converted to a string using to_s.

$stdout << "Hello " << "world!\n"

produces:

Hello world!
 
               VALUE
rb_io_addstr(VALUE io, VALUE str)
{
    rb_io_write(io, str);
    return io;
}
            
binmode => ios click to toggle source

Puts ios into binary mode. Once a stream is in binary mode, it cannot be reset to nonbinary mode.

  • newline conversion disabled

  • encoding conversion disabled

  • content is treated as ASCII-8BIT

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_binmode_m(VALUE io)
{
    VALUE write_io;

    rb_io_ascii8bit_binmode(io);

    write_io = GetWriteIO(io);
    if (write_io != io)
        rb_io_ascii8bit_binmode(write_io);
    return io;
}
            
binmode? => true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if ios is binmode.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_binmode_p(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    return fptr->mode & FMODE_BINMODE ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}
            
bytes => anEnumerator click to toggle source

Returns an enumerator that gives each byte (0..255) in ios. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.bytes.to_a  #=> [104, 101, 108, 108, 111]
f.rewind
f.bytes.sort  #=> [101, 104, 108, 108, 111]
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_bytes(VALUE io)
{
    return rb_enumeratorize(io, ID2SYM(rb_intern("each_byte")), 0, 0);
}
            
chars => anEnumerator click to toggle source

Returns an enumerator that gives each character in ios. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.chars.to_a  #=> ["h", "e", "l", "l", "o"]
f.rewind
f.chars.sort  #=> ["e", "h", "l", "l", "o"]
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_chars(VALUE io)
{
    return rb_enumeratorize(io, ID2SYM(rb_intern("each_char")), 0, 0);
}
            
close => nil click to toggle source

Closes ios and flushes any pending writes to the operating system. The stream is unavailable for any further data operations; an IOError is raised if such an attempt is made. I/O streams are automatically closed when they are claimed by the garbage collector.

If ios is opened by IO.popen, close sets $?.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_close_m(VALUE io)
{
    if (rb_safe_level() >= 4 && !OBJ_UNTRUSTED(io)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure: can't close");
    }
    rb_io_check_closed(RFILE(io)->fptr);
    rb_io_close(io);
    return Qnil;
}
            
close_on_exec = bool => true or false click to toggle source

Sets a close-on-exec flag.

f = open("/dev/null")
f.close_on_exec = true
system("cat", "/proc/self/fd/#{f.fileno}") # cat: /proc/self/fd/3: No such file or directory
f.closed?                #=> false
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_set_close_on_exec(VALUE io, VALUE arg)
{
#if defined(HAVE_FCNTL) && defined(F_GETFD) && defined(F_SETFD) && defined(FD_CLOEXEC)
    int flag = RTEST(arg) ? FD_CLOEXEC : 0;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE write_io;
    int fd, ret;

    write_io = GetWriteIO(io);
    if (io != write_io) {
        GetOpenFile(write_io, fptr);
        if (fptr && 0 <= (fd = fptr->fd)) {
            if ((ret = fcntl(fptr->fd, F_GETFD)) == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
            if ((ret & FD_CLOEXEC) != flag) {
                ret = (ret & ~FD_CLOEXEC) | flag;
                ret = fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, ret);
                if (ret == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
            }
        }

    }

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (fptr && 0 <= (fd = fptr->fd)) {
        if ((ret = fcntl(fd, F_GETFD)) == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
        if ((ret & FD_CLOEXEC) != flag) {
            ret = (ret & ~FD_CLOEXEC) | flag;
            ret = fcntl(fd, F_SETFD, ret);
            if (ret == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
        }
    }
#else
    rb_notimplement();
#endif
    return Qnil;
}
            
close_on_exec? => true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if ios will be closed on exec.

f = open("/dev/null")
f.close_on_exec?                 #=> false
f.close_on_exec = true
f.close_on_exec?                 #=> true
f.close_on_exec = false
f.close_on_exec?                 #=> false
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_close_on_exec_p(VALUE io)
{
#if defined(HAVE_FCNTL) && defined(F_GETFD) && defined(F_SETFD) && defined(FD_CLOEXEC)
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE write_io;
    int fd, ret;

    write_io = GetWriteIO(io);
    if (io != write_io) {
        GetOpenFile(write_io, fptr);
        if (fptr && 0 <= (fd = fptr->fd)) {
            if ((ret = fcntl(fd, F_GETFD)) == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
            if (!(ret & FD_CLOEXEC)) return Qfalse;
        }
    }

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (fptr && 0 <= (fd = fptr->fd)) {
        if ((ret = fcntl(fd, F_GETFD)) == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
        if (!(ret & FD_CLOEXEC)) return Qfalse;
    }
    return Qtrue;
#else
    rb_notimplement();
    return Qnil;                /* not reached */
#endif
}
            
close_read => nil click to toggle source

Closes the read end of a duplex I/O stream (i.e., one that contains both a read and a write stream, such as a pipe). Will raise an IOError if the stream is not duplexed.

f = IO.popen("/bin/sh","r+")
f.close_read
f.readlines

produces:

prog.rb:3:in `readlines': not opened for reading (IOError)
 from prog.rb:3
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_close_read(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE write_io;

    if (rb_safe_level() >= 4 && !OBJ_UNTRUSTED(io)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure: can't close");
    }
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (is_socket(fptr->fd, fptr->pathv)) {
#ifndef SHUT_RD
# define SHUT_RD 0
#endif
        if (shutdown(fptr->fd, SHUT_RD) < 0)
            rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
        fptr->mode &= ~FMODE_READABLE;
        if (!(fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE))
            return rb_io_close(io);
        return Qnil;
    }

    write_io = GetWriteIO(io);
    if (io != write_io) {
        rb_io_t *wfptr;
        rb_io_fptr_cleanup(fptr, Qfalse);
        GetOpenFile(write_io, wfptr);
        RFILE(io)->fptr = wfptr;
        RFILE(write_io)->fptr = NULL;
        rb_io_fptr_finalize(fptr);
        return Qnil;
    }

    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "closing non-duplex IO for reading");
    }
    return rb_io_close(io);
}
            
close_write => nil click to toggle source

Closes the write end of a duplex I/O stream (i.e., one that contains both a read and a write stream, such as a pipe). Will raise an IOError if the stream is not duplexed.

f = IO.popen("/bin/sh","r+")
f.close_write
f.print "nowhere"

produces:

prog.rb:3:in `write': not opened for writing (IOError)
 from prog.rb:3:in `print'
 from prog.rb:3
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_close_write(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE write_io;

    if (rb_safe_level() >= 4 && !OBJ_UNTRUSTED(io)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eSecurityError, "Insecure: can't close");
    }
    write_io = GetWriteIO(io);
    GetOpenFile(write_io, fptr);
    if (is_socket(fptr->fd, fptr->pathv)) {
#ifndef SHUT_WR
# define SHUT_WR 1
#endif
        if (shutdown(fptr->fd, SHUT_WR) < 0)
            rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
        fptr->mode &= ~FMODE_WRITABLE;
        if (!(fptr->mode & FMODE_READABLE))
            return rb_io_close(write_io);
        return Qnil;
    }

    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_READABLE) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "closing non-duplex IO for writing");
    }

    rb_io_close(write_io);
    if (io != write_io) {
        GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
        fptr->tied_io_for_writing = 0;
        fptr->mode &= ~FMODE_DUPLEX;
    }
    return Qnil;
}
            
closed? => true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if ios is completely closed (for duplex streams, both reader and writer), false otherwise.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.close         #=> nil
f.closed?       #=> true
f = IO.popen("/bin/sh","r+")
f.close_write   #=> nil
f.closed?       #=> false
f.close_read    #=> nil
f.closed?       #=> true
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_closed(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE write_io;
    rb_io_t *write_fptr;

    write_io = GetWriteIO(io);
    if (io != write_io) {
        write_fptr = RFILE(write_io)->fptr;
        if (write_fptr && 0 <= write_fptr->fd) {
            return Qfalse;
        }
    }

    fptr = RFILE(io)->fptr;
    rb_io_check_initialized(fptr);
    return 0 <= fptr->fd ? Qfalse : Qtrue;
}
            
each(sep=$/) {|line| block } => ios click to toggle source
each(limit) {|line| block } => ios
each(sep,limit) {|line| block } => ios
each_line(sep=$/) {|line| block } => ios
each_line(limit) {|line| block } => ios
each_line(sep,limit) {|line| block } => ios

Executes the block for every line in ios, where lines are separated by sep. ios must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.each {|line| puts "#{f.lineno}: #{line}" }

produces:

1: This is line one
2: This is line two
3: This is line three
4: And so on...
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_each_line(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE str, rs;
    long limit;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(io, argc, argv);
    prepare_getline_args(argc, argv, &rs, &limit, io);
    while (!NIL_P(str = rb_io_getline_1(rs, limit, io))) {
        rb_yield(str);
    }
    return io;
}
            
each_byte {|byte| block } => ios click to toggle source

Calls the given block once for each byte (0..255) in ios, passing the byte as an argument. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
checksum = 0
f.each_byte {|x| checksum ^= x }   #=> #<File:testfile>
checksum                           #=> 12
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_each_byte(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    char *p, *e;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(io, 0, 0);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);

    for (;;) {
        p = fptr->rbuf+fptr->rbuf_off;
        e = p + fptr->rbuf_len;
        while (p < e) {
            fptr->rbuf_off++;
            fptr->rbuf_len--;
            rb_yield(INT2FIX(*p & 0xff));
            p++;
    errno = 0;
        }
        rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
        READ_CHECK(fptr);
        if (io_fillbuf(fptr) < 0) {
            break;
        }
    }
    return io;
}
            
each_char {|c| block } => ios click to toggle source

Calls the given block once for each character in ios, passing the character as an argument. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.each_char {|c| print c, ' ' }   #=> #<File:testfile>
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_each_char(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    rb_encoding *enc;
    VALUE c;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(io, 0, 0);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);

    enc = io_input_encoding(fptr);
    READ_CHECK(fptr);
    while (!NIL_P(c = io_getc(fptr, enc))) {
        rb_yield(c);
    }
    return io;
}
            
each_line(sep=$/) {|line| block } => ios click to toggle source
each_line(limit) {|line| block } => ios
each_line(sep,limit) {|line| block } => ios

Executes the block for every line in ios, where lines are separated by sep. ios must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.each {|line| puts "#{f.lineno}: #{line}" }

produces:

1: This is line one
2: This is line two
3: This is line three
4: And so on...
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_each_line(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE str, rs;
    long limit;

    RETURN_ENUMERATOR(io, argc, argv);
    prepare_getline_args(argc, argv, &rs, &limit, io);
    while (!NIL_P(str = rb_io_getline_1(rs, limit, io))) {
        rb_yield(str);
    }
    return io;
}
            
eof => true or false click to toggle source
eof? => true or false

Returns true if ios is at end of file that means there are no more data to read. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
dummy = f.readlines
f.eof   #=> true

If ios is a stream such as pipe or socket, IO#eof? blocks until the other end sends some data or closes it.

r, w = IO.pipe
Thread.new { sleep 1; w.close }
r.eof?  #=> true after 1 second blocking

r, w = IO.pipe
Thread.new { sleep 1; w.puts "a" }
r.eof?  #=> false after 1 second blocking

r, w = IO.pipe
r.eof?  # blocks forever

Note that IO#eof? reads data to a input buffer. So IO#sysread doesn’t work with IO#eof?.

 
               VALUE
rb_io_eof(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);

    if (READ_DATA_PENDING(fptr)) return Qfalse;
    READ_CHECK(fptr);
    if (io_fillbuf(fptr) < 0) {
        return Qtrue;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
            
eof? => true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if ios is at end of file that means there are no more data to read. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
dummy = f.readlines
f.eof   #=> true

If ios is a stream such as pipe or socket, IO#eof? blocks until the other end sends some data or closes it.

r, w = IO.pipe
Thread.new { sleep 1; w.close }
r.eof?  #=> true after 1 second blocking

r, w = IO.pipe
Thread.new { sleep 1; w.puts "a" }
r.eof?  #=> false after 1 second blocking

r, w = IO.pipe
r.eof?  # blocks forever

Note that IO#eof? reads data to a input buffer. So IO#sysread doesn’t work with IO#eof?.

 
               VALUE
rb_io_eof(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);

    if (READ_DATA_PENDING(fptr)) return Qfalse;
    READ_CHECK(fptr);
    if (io_fillbuf(fptr) < 0) {
        return Qtrue;
    }
    return Qfalse;
}
            
external_encoding => encoding click to toggle source

Returns the Encoding object that represents the encoding of the file. If io is write mode and no encoding is specified, returns nil.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_external_encoding(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (fptr->encs.enc2) {
        return rb_enc_from_encoding(fptr->encs.enc2);
    }
    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
        if (fptr->encs.enc)
            return rb_enc_from_encoding(fptr->encs.enc);
        return Qnil;
    }
    return rb_enc_from_encoding(io_read_encoding(fptr));
}
            
fcntl(integer_cmd, arg) => integer click to toggle source

Provides a mechanism for issuing low-level commands to control or query file-oriented I/O streams. Arguments and results are platform dependent. If arg is a number, its value is passed directly. If it is a string, it is interpreted as a binary sequence of bytes (Array#pack might be a useful way to build this string). On Unix platforms, see fcntl(2) for details. Not implemented on all platforms.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_fcntl(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
#ifdef HAVE_FCNTL
    VALUE req, arg;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &req, &arg);
    return rb_io_ctl(io, req, arg, 0);
#else
    rb_notimplement();
    return Qnil;                /* not reached */
#endif
}
            
fileno => fixnum click to toggle source
to_i => fixnum

Returns an integer representing the numeric file descriptor for ios.

$stdin.fileno    #=> 0
$stdout.fileno   #=> 1
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_fileno(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int fd;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    fd = fptr->fd;
    return INT2FIX(fd);
}
            
Also aliased as: to_i
flush => ios click to toggle source

Flushes any buffered data within ios to the underlying operating system (note that this is Ruby internal buffering only; the OS may buffer the data as well).

$stdout.print "no newline"
$stdout.flush

produces:

no newline
 
               VALUE
rb_io_flush(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    if (TYPE(io) != T_FILE) {
        return rb_funcall(io, id_flush, 0);
    }

    io = GetWriteIO(io);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);

    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
        if (io_fflush(fptr) < 0)
            rb_sys_fail(0);
#ifdef _WIN32
        fsync(fptr->fd);
#endif
    }
    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_READABLE) {
        io_unread(fptr);
    }

    return io;
}
            
fsync => 0 or nil click to toggle source

Immediately writes all buffered data in ios to disk. Returns nil if the underlying operating system does not support fsync(2). Note that fsync differs from using IO#sync=. The latter ensures that data is flushed from Ruby’s buffers, but doesn’t not guarantee that the underlying operating system actually writes it to disk.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_fsync(VALUE io)
{
#ifdef HAVE_FSYNC
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    io = GetWriteIO(io);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);

    if (io_fflush(fptr) < 0)
        rb_sys_fail(0);
    if (fsync(fptr->fd) < 0)
        rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    return INT2FIX(0);
#else
    rb_notimplement();
    return Qnil;                /* not reached */
#endif
}
            
getbyte => fixnum or nil click to toggle source

Gets the next 8-bit byte (0..255) from ios. Returns nil if called at end of file.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.getbyte   #=> 84
f.getbyte   #=> 104
 
               VALUE
rb_io_getbyte(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    int c;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
    READ_CHECK(fptr);
    if (fptr->fd == 0 && (fptr->mode & FMODE_TTY) && TYPE(rb_stdout) == T_FILE) {
        rb_io_t *ofp;
        GetOpenFile(rb_stdout, ofp);
        if (ofp->mode & FMODE_TTY) {
            rb_io_flush(rb_stdout);
        }
    }
    if (io_fillbuf(fptr) < 0) {
        return Qnil;
    }
    fptr->rbuf_off++;
    fptr->rbuf_len--;
    c = (unsigned char)fptr->rbuf[fptr->rbuf_off-1];
    return INT2FIX(c & 0xff);
}
            
getc => string or nil click to toggle source

Reads a one-character string from ios. Returns nil if called at end of file.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.getc   #=> "h"
f.getc   #=> "e"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_getc(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    rb_encoding *enc;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);

    enc = io_input_encoding(fptr);
    READ_CHECK(fptr);
    return io_getc(fptr, enc);
}
            
gets(sep=$/) => string or nil click to toggle source
gets(limit) => string or nil
gets(sep, limit) => string or nil

Reads the next “line” from the I/O stream; lines are separated by sep. A separator of nil reads the entire contents, and a zero-length separator reads the input a paragraph at a time (two successive newlines in the input separate paragraphs). The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised. The line read in will be returned and also assigned to $_. Returns nil if called at end of file. If the first argument is an integer, or optional second argument is given, the returning string would not be longer than the given value in bytes.

File.new("testfile").gets   #=> "This is line one\n"
$_                          #=> "This is line one\n"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_gets_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE str;

    str = rb_io_getline(argc, argv, io);
    rb_lastline_set(str);

    return str;
}
            
inspect => string click to toggle source

Return a string describing this IO object.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_inspect(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    const char *cname;
    const char *st = "";

    fptr = RFILE(rb_io_taint_check(obj))->fptr;
    if (!fptr || NIL_P(fptr->pathv)) return rb_any_to_s(obj);
    cname = rb_obj_classname(obj);
    if (fptr->fd < 0) {
        st = " (closed)";
    }
    return rb_sprintf("#<%s:%s%s>", cname, RSTRING_PTR(fptr->pathv), st);
}
            
internal_encoding => encoding click to toggle source

Returns the Encoding of the internal string if conversion is specified. Otherwise returns nil.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_internal_encoding(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (!fptr->encs.enc2) return Qnil;
    return rb_enc_from_encoding(io_read_encoding(fptr));
}
            
ioctl(integer_cmd, arg) => integer click to toggle source

Provides a mechanism for issuing low-level commands to control or query I/O devices. Arguments and results are platform dependent. If arg is a number, its value is passed directly. If it is a string, it is interpreted as a binary sequence of bytes. On Unix platforms, see ioctl(2) for details. Not implemented on all platforms.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_ioctl(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE req, arg;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &req, &arg);
    return rb_io_ctl(io, req, arg, 1);
}
            
isatty => true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if ios is associated with a terminal device (tty), false otherwise.

File.new("testfile").isatty   #=> false
File.new("/dev/tty").isatty   #=> true
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_isatty(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (isatty(fptr->fd) == 0)
        return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}
            
lineno => integer click to toggle source

Returns the current line number in ios. The stream must be opened for reading. lineno counts the number of times gets is called, rather than the number of newlines encountered. The two values will differ if gets is called with a separator other than newline. See also the $. variable.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.lineno   #=> 0
f.gets     #=> "This is line one\n"
f.lineno   #=> 1
f.gets     #=> "This is line two\n"
f.lineno   #=> 2
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_lineno(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
    return INT2NUM(fptr->lineno);
}
            
lineno = integer => integer click to toggle source

Manually sets the current line number to the given value. $. is updated only on the next read.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.gets                     #=> "This is line one\n"
$.                         #=> 1
f.lineno = 1000
f.lineno                   #=> 1000
$.                         #=> 1         # lineno of last read
f.gets                     #=> "This is line two\n"
$.                         #=> 1001      # lineno of last read
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_set_lineno(VALUE io, VALUE lineno)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
    fptr->lineno = NUM2INT(lineno);
    return lineno;
}
            
lines(sep=$/) => anEnumerator click to toggle source
lines(limit) => anEnumerator
lines(sep, limit) => anEnumerator

Returns an enumerator that gives each line in ios. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.lines.to_a  #=> ["foo\n", "bar\n"]
f.rewind
f.lines.sort  #=> ["bar\n", "foo\n"]
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_lines(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    return rb_enumeratorize(io, ID2SYM(rb_intern("each_line")), argc, argv);
}
            
pid => fixnum click to toggle source

Returns the process ID of a child process associated with ios. This will be set by IO.popen.

pipe = IO.popen("-")
if pipe
  $stderr.puts "In parent, child pid is #{pipe.pid}"
else
  $stderr.puts "In child, pid is #{$$}"
end

produces:

In child, pid is 26209
In parent, child pid is 26209
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_pid(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (!fptr->pid)
        return Qnil;
    return PIDT2NUM(fptr->pid);
}
            
pos => integer click to toggle source

Returns the current offset (in bytes) of ios.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.pos    #=> 0
f.gets   #=> "This is line one\n"
f.pos    #=> 17
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_tell(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    off_t pos;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    pos = io_tell(fptr);
    if (pos < 0 && errno) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    return OFFT2NUM(pos);
}
            
pos = integer => integer click to toggle source

Seeks to the given position (in bytes) in ios.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.pos = 17
f.gets   #=> "This is line two\n"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_set_pos(VALUE io, VALUE offset)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    off_t pos;

    pos = NUM2OFFT(offset);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    pos = io_seek(fptr, pos, SEEK_SET);
    if (pos < 0) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);

    return OFFT2NUM(pos);
}
            
printf(format_string [, obj, ...] ) => nil click to toggle source

Formats and writes to ios, converting parameters under control of the format string. See Kernel#sprintf for details.

 
               VALUE
rb_io_printf(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE out)
{
    rb_io_write(out, rb_f_sprintf(argc, argv));
    return Qnil;
}
            
putc(obj) => obj click to toggle source

If obj is Numeric, write the character whose code is obj, otherwise write the first character of the string representation of obj to ios.

$stdout.putc "A"
$stdout.putc 65

produces:

AA
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_putc(VALUE io, VALUE ch)
{
    char c = NUM2CHR(ch);

    rb_io_write(io, rb_str_new(&c, 1));
    return ch;
}
            
puts(obj, ...) => nil click to toggle source

Writes the given objects to ios as with IO#print. Writes a record separator (typically a newline) after any that do not already end with a newline sequence. If called with an array argument, writes each element on a new line. If called without arguments, outputs a single record separator.

$stdout.puts("this", "is", "a", "test")

produces:

this
is
a
test
 
               VALUE
rb_io_puts(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE out)
{
    int i;
    VALUE line;

    /* if no argument given, print newline. */
    if (argc == 0) {
        rb_io_write(out, rb_default_rs);
        return Qnil;
    }
    for (i=0; i<argc; i++) {
        line = rb_check_array_type(argv[i]);
        if (!NIL_P(line)) {
            rb_exec_recursive(io_puts_ary, line, out);
            continue;
        }
        line = rb_obj_as_string(argv[i]);
        rb_io_write(out, line);
        if (RSTRING_LEN(line) == 0 ||
            RSTRING_PTR(line)[RSTRING_LEN(line)-1] != '\n') {
            rb_io_write(out, rb_default_rs);
        }
    }

    return Qnil;
}
            
read([length [, buffer]]) => string, buffer, or nil click to toggle source

Reads at most length bytes from the I/O stream, or to the end of file if length is omitted or is nil. length must be a non-negative integer or nil. If the optional buffer argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data.

At end of file, it returns nil or "" depend on length. ios.read() and ios.read(nil) returns "". ios.read(positive-integer) returns nil.

ios.read(0) returns "".

f = File.new("testfile")
f.read(16)   #=> "This is line one"
 
               static VALUE
io_read(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    long n, len;
    VALUE length, str;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "02", &length, &str);

    if (NIL_P(length)) {
        if (!NIL_P(str)) StringValue(str);
        GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
        rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
        return read_all(fptr, remain_size(fptr), str);
    }
    len = NUM2LONG(length);
    if (len < 0) {
        rb_raise(rb_eArgError, "negative length %ld given", len);
    }

    if (NIL_P(str)) {
        str = rb_str_new(0, len);
    }
    else {
        StringValue(str);
        rb_str_modify(str);
        rb_str_resize(str,len);
    }

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
    if (len == 0) return str;

    READ_CHECK(fptr);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) != len) {
        rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "buffer string modified");
    }
    n = io_fread(str, 0, fptr);
    if (n == 0) {
        if (fptr->fd < 0) return Qnil;
        rb_str_resize(str, 0);
        return Qnil;
    }
    rb_str_resize(str, n);
    OBJ_TAINT(str);

    return str;
}
            
read_nonblock(maxlen) => string click to toggle source
read_nonblock(maxlen, outbuf) => outbuf

Reads at most maxlen bytes from ios using the read(2) system call after O_NONBLOCK is set for the underlying file descriptor.

If the optional outbuf argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data.

#read_nonblock just calls the read(2) system call. It causes all errors the read(2) system call causes: Errno::EWOULDBLOCK, Errno::EINTR, etc. The caller should care such errors.

#read_nonblock causes EOFError on EOF.

If the read buffer is not empty, #read_nonblock reads from the buffer like readpartial. In this case, the read(2) system call is not called.

When #read_nonblock raises EWOULDBLOCK, #read_nonblock should not be called until io is readable for avoiding busy loop. This can be done as follows.

begin
  result = io.read_nonblock(maxlen)
rescue Errno::EWOULDBLOCK, Errno::EAGAIN, Errno::EINTR
  IO.select([io])
  retry
end

Note that this is identical to readpartial except the non-blocking flag is set.

 
               static VALUE
io_read_nonblock(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE ret;

    ret = io_getpartial(argc, argv, io, 1);
    if (NIL_P(ret))
        rb_eof_error();
    else
        return ret;
}
            
readbyte => fixnum click to toggle source

Reads a byte as with IO#getbyte, but raises an EOFError on end of file.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_readbyte(VALUE io)
{
    VALUE c = rb_io_getbyte(io);

    if (NIL_P(c)) {
        rb_eof_error();
    }
    return c;
}
            
readchar => string click to toggle source

Reads a one-character string from ios. Raises an EOFError on end of file.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.readchar   #=> "h"
f.readchar   #=> "e"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_readchar(VALUE io)
{
    VALUE c = rb_io_getc(io);

    if (NIL_P(c)) {
        rb_eof_error();
    }
    return c;
}
            
readline(sep=$/) => string click to toggle source
readline(limit) => string
readline(sep, limit) => string

Reads a line as with IO#gets, but raises an EOFError on end of file.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_readline(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE line = rb_io_gets_m(argc, argv, io);

    if (NIL_P(line)) {
        rb_eof_error();
    }
    return line;
}
            
readlines(sep=$/) => array click to toggle source
readlines(limit) => array
readlines(sep, limit) => array

Reads all of the lines in ios, and returns them in anArray. Lines are separated by the optional sep. If sep is nil, the rest of the stream is returned as a single record. If the first argument is an integer, or optional second argument is given, the returning string would not be longer than the given value in bytes. The stream must be opened for reading or an IOError will be raised.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.readlines[0]   #=> "This is line one\n"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_readlines(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE line, ary, rs;
    long limit;

    prepare_getline_args(argc, argv, &rs, &limit, io);
    ary = rb_ary_new();
    while (!NIL_P(line = rb_io_getline_1(rs, limit, io))) {
        rb_ary_push(ary, line);
    }
    return ary;
}
            
readpartial(maxlen) => string click to toggle source
readpartial(maxlen, outbuf) => outbuf

Reads at most maxlen bytes from the I/O stream. It blocks only if ios has no data immediately available. It doesn’t block if some data available. If the optional outbuf argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data. It raises EOFError on end of file.

readpartial is designed for streams such as pipe, socket, tty, etc. It blocks only when no data immediately available. This means that it blocks only when following all conditions hold.

  • the buffer in the IO object is empty.

  • the content of the stream is empty.

  • the stream is not reached to EOF.

When readpartial blocks, it waits data or EOF on the stream. If some data is reached, readpartial returns with the data. If EOF is reached, readpartial raises EOFError.

When readpartial doesn’t blocks, it returns or raises immediately. If the buffer is not empty, it returns the data in the buffer. Otherwise if the stream has some content, it returns the data in the stream. Otherwise if the stream is reached to EOF, it raises EOFError.

r, w = IO.pipe           #               buffer          pipe content
w << "abc"               #               ""              "abc".
r.readpartial(4096)      #=> "abc"       ""              ""
r.readpartial(4096)      # blocks because buffer and pipe is empty.

r, w = IO.pipe           #               buffer          pipe content
w << "abc"               #               ""              "abc"
w.close                  #               ""              "abc" EOF
r.readpartial(4096)      #=> "abc"       ""              EOF
r.readpartial(4096)      # raises EOFError

r, w = IO.pipe           #               buffer          pipe content
w << "abc\ndef\n"        #               ""              "abc\ndef\n"
r.gets                   #=> "abc\n"     "def\n"         ""
w << "ghi\n"             #               "def\n"         "ghi\n"
r.readpartial(4096)      #=> "def\n"     ""              "ghi\n"
r.readpartial(4096)      #=> "ghi\n"     ""              ""

Note that readpartial behaves similar to sysread. The differences are:

  • If the buffer is not empty, read from the buffer instead of “sysread for buffered IO (IOError)”.

  • It doesn’t cause Errno::EWOULDBLOCK and Errno::EINTR. When readpartial meets EWOULDBLOCK and EINTR by read system call, readpartial retry the system call.

The later means that readpartial is nonblocking-flag insensitive. It blocks on the situation #sysread causes Errno::EWOULDBLOCK as if the fd is blocking mode.

 
               static VALUE
io_readpartial(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE ret;

    ret = io_getpartial(argc, argv, io, 0);
    if (NIL_P(ret))
        rb_eof_error();
    else
        return ret;
}
            
reopen(other_IO) => ios click to toggle source
reopen(path, mode_str) => ios

Reassociates ios with the I/O stream given in other_IO or to a new stream opened on path. This may dynamically change the actual class of this stream.

f1 = File.new("testfile")
f2 = File.new("testfile")
f2.readlines[0]   #=> "This is line one\n"
f2.reopen(f1)     #=> #<File:testfile>
f2.readlines[0]   #=> "This is line one\n"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_reopen(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE file)
{
    VALUE fname, nmode;
    int oflags;
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    rb_secure(4);
    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &fname, &nmode) == 1) {
        VALUE tmp = rb_io_check_io(fname);
        if (!NIL_P(tmp)) {
            return io_reopen(file, tmp);
        }
    }

    FilePathValue(fname);
    rb_io_taint_check(file);
    fptr = RFILE(file)->fptr;
    if (!fptr) {
        fptr = RFILE(file)->fptr = ALLOC(rb_io_t);
        MEMZERO(fptr, rb_io_t, 1);
    }

    if (!NIL_P(nmode)) {
        int fmode = rb_io_modestr_fmode(StringValueCStr(nmode));
        if (IS_PREP_STDIO(fptr) &&
            ((fptr->mode & FMODE_READWRITE) & (fmode & FMODE_READWRITE)) !=
            (fptr->mode & FMODE_READWRITE)) {
            rb_raise(rb_eArgError,
                     "%s can't change access mode from \"%s\" to \"%s\"",
                     PREP_STDIO_NAME(fptr), rb_io_fmode_modestr(fptr->mode),
                     rb_io_fmode_modestr(fmode));
        }
        fptr->mode = fmode;
        rb_io_mode_enc(fptr, StringValueCStr(nmode));
        fptr->encs.ecflags = 0;
        fptr->encs.ecopts = Qnil;
    }

    fptr->pathv = rb_str_new_frozen(fname);
    oflags = rb_io_fmode_oflags(fptr->mode);
    if (fptr->fd < 0) {
        fptr->fd = rb_sysopen(RSTRING_PTR(fptr->pathv), oflags, 0666);
        fptr->stdio_file = 0;
        return file;
    }

    if (fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) {
        if (io_fflush(fptr) < 0)
            rb_sys_fail(0);
    }
    fptr->rbuf_off = fptr->rbuf_len = 0;

    if (fptr->stdio_file) {
        if (freopen(RSTRING_PTR(fptr->pathv), rb_io_oflags_modestr(oflags), fptr->stdio_file) == 0) {
            rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
        }
        fptr->fd = fileno(fptr->stdio_file);
#ifdef USE_SETVBUF
        if (setvbuf(fptr->stdio_file, NULL, _IOFBF, 0) != 0)
            rb_warn("setvbuf() can't be honoured for %s", RSTRING_PTR(fptr->pathv));
#endif
    }
    else {
        if (close(fptr->fd) < 0)
            rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
        fptr->fd = -1;
        fptr->fd = rb_sysopen(RSTRING_PTR(fptr->pathv), oflags, 0666);
    }

    return file;
}
            
rewind => 0 click to toggle source

Positions ios to the beginning of input, resetting lineno to zero.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.readline   #=> "This is line one\n"
f.rewind     #=> 0
f.lineno     #=> 0
f.readline   #=> "This is line one\n"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_rewind(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (io_seek(fptr, 0L, 0) < 0) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    if (io == ARGF.current_file) {
        ARGF.lineno -= fptr->lineno;
    }
    fptr->lineno = 0;
    if (fptr->readconv) {
        clear_readconv(fptr);
    }

    return INT2FIX(0);
}
            
seek(amount, whence=SEEK_SET) → 0 click to toggle source

Seeks to a given offset anInteger in the stream according to the value of whence:

IO::SEEK_CUR  | Seeks to _amount_ plus current position
--------------+----------------------------------------------------
IO::SEEK_END  | Seeks to _amount_ plus end of stream (you probably
              | want a negative value for _amount_)
--------------+----------------------------------------------------
IO::SEEK_SET  | Seeks to the absolute location given by _amount_

Example:

f = File.new("testfile")
f.seek(-13, IO::SEEK_END)   #=> 0
f.readline                  #=> "And so on...\n"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_seek_m(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE offset, ptrname;
    int whence = SEEK_SET;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &offset, &ptrname) == 2) {
        whence = NUM2INT(ptrname);
    }

    return rb_io_seek(io, offset, whence);
}
            
set_encoding(ext_enc) => io click to toggle source
set_encoding("ext_enc:int_enc") => io
set_encoding(ext_enc, int_enc) => io
set_encoding("ext_enc:int_enc", opt) => io
set_encoding(ext_enc, int_enc, opt) => io

If single argument is specified, read string from io is tagged with the encoding specified. If encoding is a colon separated two encoding names “A:B”, the read string is converted from encoding A (external encoding) to encoding B (internal encoding), then tagged with B. If two arguments are specified, those must be encoding objects or encoding names, and the first one is the external encoding, and the second one is the internal encoding. If the external encoding and the internal encoding is specified, optional hash argument specify the conversion option.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_set_encoding(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    VALUE v1, v2, opt;

    opt = pop_last_hash(&argc, argv);
    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &v1, &v2);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    io_encoding_set(fptr, v1, v2, opt);
    return io;
}
            
stat => stat click to toggle source

Returns status information for ios as an object of type File::Stat.

f = File.new("testfile")
s = f.stat
"%o" % s.mode   #=> "100644"
s.blksize       #=> 4096
s.atime         #=> Wed Apr 09 08:53:54 CDT 2003
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_stat(VALUE obj)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    struct stat st;

#define rb_sys_fail_path(path) rb_sys_fail(NIL_P(path) ? 0 : RSTRING_PTR(path))
    GetOpenFile(obj, fptr);
    if (fstat(fptr->fd, &st) == -1) {
        rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    return stat_new(&st);
}
            
sync => true or false click to toggle source

Returns the current “sync mode” of ios. When sync mode is true, all output is immediately flushed to the underlying operating system and is not buffered by Ruby internally. See also IO#fsync.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.sync   #=> false
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_sync(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    io = GetWriteIO(io);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    return (fptr->mode & FMODE_SYNC) ? Qtrue : Qfalse;
}
            
sync = boolean => boolean click to toggle source

Sets the “sync mode” to true or false. When sync mode is true, all output is immediately flushed to the underlying operating system and is not buffered internally. Returns the new state. See also IO#fsync.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.sync = true

(produces no output)

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_set_sync(VALUE io, VALUE sync)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    io = GetWriteIO(io);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (RTEST(sync)) {
        fptr->mode |= FMODE_SYNC;
    }
    else {
        fptr->mode &= ~FMODE_SYNC;
    }
    return sync;
}
            
sysread(integer[, outbuf]) => string click to toggle source

Reads integer bytes from ios using a low-level read and returns them as a string. Do not mix with other methods that read from ios or you may get unpredictable results. If the optional outbuf argument is present, it must reference a String, which will receive the data. Raises SystemCallError on error and EOFError at end of file.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.sysread(16)   #=> "This is line one"
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_sysread(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE len, str;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    long n, ilen;

    rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &len, &str);
    ilen = NUM2LONG(len);

    if (NIL_P(str)) {
        str = rb_str_new(0, ilen);
    }
    else {
        StringValue(str);
        rb_str_modify(str);
        rb_str_resize(str, ilen);
    }
    if (ilen == 0) return str;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);

    if (READ_DATA_BUFFERED(fptr)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "sysread for buffered IO");
    }

    n = fptr->fd;
    rb_thread_wait_fd(fptr->fd);
    rb_io_check_closed(fptr);
    if (RSTRING_LEN(str) != ilen) {
        rb_raise(rb_eRuntimeError, "buffer string modified");
    }

    n = rb_read_internal(fptr->fd, RSTRING_PTR(str), ilen);

    if (n == -1) {
        rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    }
    rb_str_set_len(str, n);
    if (n == 0 && ilen > 0) {
        rb_eof_error();
    }
    rb_str_resize(str, n);
    OBJ_TAINT(str);

    return str;
}
            
sysseek(offset, whence=SEEK_SET) => integer click to toggle source

Seeks to a given offset in the stream according to the value of whence (see IO#seek for values of whence). Returns the new offset into the file.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.sysseek(-13, IO::SEEK_END)   #=> 53
f.sysread(10)                  #=> "And so on."
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_sysseek(int argc, VALUE *argv, VALUE io)
{
    VALUE offset, ptrname;
    int whence = SEEK_SET;
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    off_t pos;

    if (rb_scan_args(argc, argv, "11", &offset, &ptrname) == 2) {
        whence = NUM2INT(ptrname);
    }
    pos = NUM2OFFT(offset);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if ((fptr->mode & FMODE_READABLE) && READ_DATA_BUFFERED(fptr)) {
        rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "sysseek for buffered IO");
    }
    if ((fptr->mode & FMODE_WRITABLE) && fptr->wbuf_len) {
        rb_warn("sysseek for buffered IO");
    }
    pos = lseek(fptr->fd, pos, whence);
    if (pos == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);

    return OFFT2NUM(pos);
}
            
syswrite(string) => integer click to toggle source

Writes the given string to ios using a low-level write. Returns the number of bytes written. Do not mix with other methods that write to ios or you may get unpredictable results. Raises SystemCallError on error.

f = File.new("out", "w")
f.syswrite("ABCDEF")   #=> 6
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_syswrite(VALUE io, VALUE str)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    long n;

    rb_secure(4);
    if (TYPE(str) != T_STRING)
        str = rb_obj_as_string(str);

    io = GetWriteIO(io);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_writable(fptr);

    if (fptr->wbuf_len) {
        rb_warn("syswrite for buffered IO");
    }
    if (!rb_thread_fd_writable(fptr->fd)) {
        rb_io_check_closed(fptr);
    }

    n = write(fptr->fd, RSTRING_PTR(str), RSTRING_LEN(str));

    if (n == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);

    return LONG2FIX(n);
}
            
tell => integer click to toggle source

Returns the current offset (in bytes) of ios.

f = File.new("testfile")
f.pos    #=> 0
f.gets   #=> "This is line one\n"
f.pos    #=> 17
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_tell(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    off_t pos;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    pos = io_tell(fptr);
    if (pos < 0 && errno) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);
    return OFFT2NUM(pos);
}
            
to_i() click to toggle source
Alias for: fileno
to_io → ios click to toggle source

Returns ios.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_to_io(VALUE io)
{
    return io;
}
            
tty? => true or false click to toggle source

Returns true if ios is associated with a terminal device (tty), false otherwise.

File.new("testfile").isatty   #=> false
File.new("/dev/tty").isatty   #=> true
 
               static VALUE
rb_io_isatty(VALUE io)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    if (isatty(fptr->fd) == 0)
        return Qfalse;
    return Qtrue;
}
            
ungetbyte(string) => nil click to toggle source
ungetbyte(integer) => nil

Pushes back bytes (passed as a parameter) onto ios, such that a subsequent buffered read will return it. Only one byte may be pushed back before a subsequent read operation (that is, you will be able to read only the last of several bytes that have been pushed back). Has no effect with unbuffered reads (such as IO#sysread).

f = File.new("testfile")   #=> #<File:testfile>
b = f.getbyte              #=> 0x38
f.ungetbyte(b)             #=> nil
f.getbyte                  #=> 0x38
 
               VALUE
rb_io_ungetbyte(VALUE io, VALUE b)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
    io_unset_eof(fptr);
    if (NIL_P(b)) return Qnil;
    if (FIXNUM_P(b)) {
        char cc = FIX2INT(b);
        b = rb_str_new(&cc, 1);
    }
    else {
        SafeStringValue(b);
    }
    io_ungetbyte(b, fptr);
    return Qnil;
}
            
ungetc(string) => nil click to toggle source

Pushes back one character (passed as a parameter) onto ios, such that a subsequent buffered read will return it. Only one character may be pushed back before a subsequent read operation (that is, you will be able to read only the last of several characters that have been pushed back). Has no effect with unbuffered reads (such as IO#sysread).

f = File.new("testfile")   #=> #<File:testfile>
c = f.getc                 #=> "8"
f.ungetc(c)                #=> nil
f.getc                     #=> "8"
 
               VALUE
rb_io_ungetc(VALUE io, VALUE c)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    long len;

    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_readable(fptr);
    io_unset_eof(fptr);
    if (NIL_P(c)) return Qnil;
    if (FIXNUM_P(c)) {
        int cc = FIX2INT(c);
        rb_encoding *enc = io_read_encoding(fptr);
        char buf[16];

        c = rb_str_new(buf, rb_enc_mbcput(cc, buf, enc));
    }
    else {
        SafeStringValue(c);
    }
    if (NEED_READCONV(fptr)) {
        len = RSTRING_LEN(c);
        make_readconv(fptr, len);
        if (fptr->cbuf_capa - fptr->cbuf_len < len)
            rb_raise(rb_eIOError, "ungetc failed");
        if (fptr->cbuf_off < len) {
            MEMMOVE(fptr->cbuf+fptr->cbuf_capa-fptr->cbuf_len,
                    fptr->cbuf+fptr->cbuf_off,
                    char, fptr->cbuf_len);
            fptr->cbuf_off = fptr->cbuf_capa-fptr->cbuf_len;
        }
        fptr->cbuf_off -= len;
        fptr->cbuf_len += len;
        MEMMOVE(fptr->cbuf+fptr->cbuf_off, RSTRING_PTR(c), char, len);
    }
    else {
        io_ungetbyte(c, fptr);
    }
    return Qnil;
}
            
write(string) => integer click to toggle source

Writes the given string to ios. The stream must be opened for writing. If the argument is not a string, it will be converted to a string using to_s. Returns the number of bytes written.

count = $stdout.write( "This is a test\n" )
puts "That was #{count} bytes of data"

produces:

This is a test
That was 15 bytes of data
 
               static VALUE
io_write_m(VALUE io, VALUE str)
{
    return io_write(io, str, 0);
}
            
write_nonblock(string) => integer click to toggle source

Writes the given string to ios using the write(2) system call after O_NONBLOCK is set for the underlying file descriptor.

It returns the number of bytes written.

#write_nonblock just calls the write(2) system call. It causes all errors the write(2) system call causes: Errno::EWOULDBLOCK, Errno::EINTR, etc. The result may also be smaller than string.length (partial write). The caller should care such errors and partial write.

If the write buffer is not empty, it is flushed at first.

When #write_nonblock raises EWOULDBLOCK, #write_nonblock should not be called until io is writable for avoiding busy loop. This can be done as follows.

begin
  result = io.write_nonblock(string)
rescue Errno::EWOULDBLOCK, Errno::EAGAIN, Errno::EINTR
  IO.select(nil, [io])
  retry
end

Note that this doesn’t guarantee to write all data in string. The length written is reported as result and it should be checked later.

 
               static VALUE
rb_io_write_nonblock(VALUE io, VALUE str)
{
    rb_io_t *fptr;
    long n;

    rb_secure(4);
    if (TYPE(str) != T_STRING)
        str = rb_obj_as_string(str);

    io = GetWriteIO(io);
    GetOpenFile(io, fptr);
    rb_io_check_writable(fptr);

    if (io_fflush(fptr) < 0)
        rb_sys_fail(0);

    rb_io_set_nonblock(fptr);
    n = write(fptr->fd, RSTRING_PTR(str), RSTRING_LEN(str));

    if (n == -1) rb_sys_fail_path(fptr->pathv);

    return LONG2FIX(n);
}
            

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