class Net::IMAP

Net::IMAP implements Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) client functionality. The protocol is described in [IMAP].

IMAP Overview

An IMAP client connects to a server, and then authenticates itself using either authenticate or login. Having authenticated itself, there is a range of commands available to it. Most work with mailboxes, which may be arranged in an hierarchical namespace, and each of which contains zero or more messages. How this is implemented on the server is implementation-dependent; on a UNIX server, it will frequently be implemented as files in mailbox format within a hierarchy of directories.

To work on the messages within a mailbox, the client must first select that mailbox, using either select or (for read-only access) examine. Once the client has successfully selected a mailbox, they enter selected state, and that mailbox becomes the current mailbox, on which mail-item related commands implicitly operate.

Messages have two sorts of identifiers: message sequence numbers and UIDs.

Message sequence numbers number messages within a mailbox from 1 up to the number of items in the mailbox. If a new message arrives during a session, it receives a sequence number equal to the new size of the mailbox. If messages are expunged from the mailbox, remaining messages have their sequence numbers “shuffled down” to fill the gaps.

UIDs, on the other hand, are permanently guaranteed not to identify another message within the same mailbox, even if the existing message is deleted. UIDs are required to be assigned in ascending (but not necessarily sequential) order within a mailbox; this means that if a non-IMAP client rearranges the order of mailitems within a mailbox, the UIDs have to be reassigned. An IMAP client thus cannot rearrange message orders.

Examples of Usage

List sender and subject of all recent messages in the default mailbox

imap = Net::IMAP.new('mail.example.com')
imap.authenticate('LOGIN', 'joe_user', 'joes_password')
imap.examine('INBOX')
imap.search(["RECENT"]).each do |message_id|
  envelope = imap.fetch(message_id, "ENVELOPE")[0].attr["ENVELOPE"]
  puts "#{envelope.from[0].name}: \t#{envelope.subject}"
end

Move all messages from April 2003 from “Mail/sent-mail” to “Mail/sent-apr03”

imap = Net::IMAP.new('mail.example.com')
imap.authenticate('LOGIN', 'joe_user', 'joes_password')
imap.select('Mail/sent-mail')
if not imap.list('Mail/', 'sent-apr03')
  imap.create('Mail/sent-apr03')
end
imap.search(["BEFORE", "30-Apr-2003", "SINCE", "1-Apr-2003"]).each do |message_id|
  imap.copy(message_id, "Mail/sent-apr03")
  imap.store(message_id, "+FLAGS", [:Deleted])
end
imap.expunge

Thread Safety

Net::IMAP supports concurrent threads. For example,

imap = Net::IMAP.new("imap.foo.net", "imap2")
imap.authenticate("cram-md5", "bar", "password")
imap.select("inbox")
fetch_thread = Thread.start { imap.fetch(1..-1, "UID") }
search_result = imap.search(["BODY", "hello"])
fetch_result = fetch_thread.value
imap.disconnect

This script invokes the FETCH command and the SEARCH command concurrently.

Errors

An IMAP server can send three different types of responses to indicate failure:

NO

the attempted command could not be successfully completed. For instance, the username/password used for logging in are incorrect; the selected mailbox does not exist; etc.

BAD

the request from the client does not follow the server’s understanding of the IMAP protocol. This includes attempting commands from the wrong client state; for instance, attempting to perform a SEARCH command without having SELECTed a current mailbox. It can also signal an internal server failure (such as a disk crash) has occurred.

BYE

the server is saying goodbye. This can be part of a normal logout sequence, and can be used as part of a login sequence to indicate that the server is (for some reason) unwilling to accept your connection. As a response to any other command, it indicates either that the server is shutting down, or that the server is timing out the client connection due to inactivity.

These three error response are represented by the errors Net::IMAP::NoResponseError, Net::IMAP::BadResponseError, and Net::IMAP::ByeResponseError, all of which are subclasses of Net::IMAP::ResponseError. Essentially, all methods that involve sending a request to the server can generate one of these errors. Only the most pertinent instances have been documented below.

Because the IMAP class uses Sockets for communication, its methods are also susceptible to the various errors that can occur when working with sockets. These are generally represented as Errno errors. For instance, any method that involves sending a request to the server and/or receiving a response from it could raise an Errno::EPIPE error if the network connection unexpectedly goes down. See the socket(7), ip(7), tcp(7), socket(2), connect(2), and associated man pages.

Finally, a Net::IMAP::DataFormatError is thrown if low-level data is found to be in an incorrect format (for instance, when converting between UTF-8 and UTF-16), and Net::IMAP::ResponseParseError is thrown if a server response is non-parseable.

References

[IMAP]

Crispin, M. “INTERNET MESSAGE ACCESS PROTOCOL - VERSION 4rev1”, RFC-3501, March 2003. (Note: obsoletes RFC-2060, December 1996.)

[LANGUAGE-TAGS]

Phillips, A. and Davis, M. “Tags for Identifying Languages”, RFC-5646, September 2009. (Note: obsoletes RFC-3066, January 2001, RFC-4646, September 2006, and RFC-1766, March 1995.)

[MD5]

Myers, J. and M. Rose, “The Content-MD5 Header Field”, RFC-1864, October 1995.

[MIME-IMB]

Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, “MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies”, RFC-2045, November 1996.

[RFC-5322]

Resnick, P., “Internet Message Format”, RFC-5322, October 2008. (Note: obsoletes RFC-2822, April 2001, and RFC-822, August 1982.)

[EXT-QUOTA]

Myers, J., “IMAP4 QUOTA extension”, RFC-2087, January 1997.

[EXT-NAMESPACE]

Gahrns, M. and Newman, C., “IMAP4 Namespace”, RFC-2342, May 1998.

[EXT-ID]

Showalter, T., “IMAP4 ID extension”, RFC-2971, October 2000.

[EXT-ACL]

Melnikov, A., “IMAP4 ACL extension”, RFC-4314, December 2005. (Note: obsoletes RFC-2086, January 1997.)

[EXT-SORT-THREAD]

Crispin, M. and Muchison, K., “INTERNET MESSAGE ACCESS PROTOCOL - SORT and THREAD Extensions”, RFC-5256, June 2008.

[EXT-MOVE]

Gulbrandsen, A. and Freed, N., “Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) - MOVE Extension”, RFC-6851, January 2013.

[OSSL]

www.openssl.org

[RSSL]

savannah.gnu.org/projects/rubypki

[UTF7]

Goldsmith, D. and Davis, M., “UTF-7: A Mail-Safe Transformation Format of Unicode”, RFC-2152, May 1997.

Constants

DATE_MONTH
RESPONSE_ERRORS
VERSION

Attributes

client_thread[RW]

The thread to receive exceptions.

greeting[R]

Returns an initial greeting response from the server.

idle_response_timeout[R]

Seconds to wait until an IDLE response is received.

open_timeout[R]

Seconds to wait until a connection is opened. If the IMAP object cannot open a connection within this time, it raises a Net::OpenTimeout exception. The default value is 30 seconds.

response_handlers[R]

Returns all response handlers.

responses[R]

Returns recorded untagged responses. For example:

imap.select("inbox")
p imap.responses["EXISTS"][-1]
#=> 2
p imap.responses["UIDVALIDITY"][-1]
#=> 968263756

Public Class Methods

debug() click to toggle source

Returns the debug mode.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 258
def self.debug
  return @@debug
end
debug=(val) click to toggle source

Sets the debug mode.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 263
def self.debug=(val)
  return @@debug = val
end
decode_utf7(s) click to toggle source

Decode a string from modified UTF-7 format to UTF-8.

UTF-7 is a 7-bit encoding of Unicode [UTF7]. IMAP uses a slightly modified version of this to encode mailbox names containing non-ASCII characters; see [IMAP] section 5.1.3.

Net::IMAP does not automatically encode and decode mailbox names to and from UTF-7.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap/data_encoding.rb, line 16
def self.decode_utf7(s)
  return s.gsub(/&([^-]+)?-/n) {
    if $1
      ($1.tr(",", "/") + "===").unpack1("m").encode(Encoding::UTF_8, Encoding::UTF_16BE)
    else
      "&"
    end
  }
end
default_imap_port()
Alias for: default_port
default_imaps_port()
Alias for: default_tls_port
default_port() click to toggle source

The default port for IMAP connections, port 143

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 268
def self.default_port
  return PORT
end
Also aliased as: default_imap_port
default_ssl_port()
Alias for: default_tls_port
default_tls_port() click to toggle source

The default port for IMAPS connections, port 993

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 273
def self.default_tls_port
  return SSL_PORT
end
encode_utf7(s) click to toggle source

Encode a string from UTF-8 format to modified UTF-7.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap/data_encoding.rb, line 27
def self.encode_utf7(s)
  return s.gsub(/(&)|[^\x20-\x7e]+/) {
    if $1
      "&-"
    else
      base64 = [$&.encode(Encoding::UTF_16BE)].pack("m0")
      "&" + base64.delete("=").tr("/", ",") + "-"
    end
  }.force_encoding("ASCII-8BIT")
end
format_date(time) click to toggle source

Formats time as an IMAP-style date.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap/data_encoding.rb, line 39
def self.format_date(time)
  return time.strftime('%d-%b-%Y')
end
format_datetime(time) click to toggle source

Formats time as an IMAP-style date-time.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap/data_encoding.rb, line 44
def self.format_datetime(time)
  return time.strftime('%d-%b-%Y %H:%M %z')
end
Net::IMAP.new(host, options = {}) click to toggle source

Creates a new Net::IMAP object and connects it to the specified host.

options is an option hash, each key of which is a symbol.

The available options are:

port

Port number (default value is 143 for imap, or 993 for imaps)

ssl

If options[:ssl] is true, then an attempt will be made to use SSL (now TLS) to connect to the server. For this to work OpenSSL [OSSL] and the Ruby OpenSSL [RSSL] extensions need to be installed. If options[:ssl] is a hash, it’s passed to OpenSSL::SSL::SSLContext#set_params as parameters.

open_timeout

Seconds to wait until a connection is opened

idle_response_timeout

Seconds to wait until an IDLE response is received

The most common errors are:

Errno::ECONNREFUSED

Connection refused by host or an intervening firewall.

Errno::ETIMEDOUT

Connection timed out (possibly due to packets being dropped by an intervening firewall).

Errno::ENETUNREACH

There is no route to that network.

SocketError

Hostname not known or other socket error.

Net::IMAP::ByeResponseError

The connected to the host was successful, but it immediately said goodbye.

Calls superclass method
# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 1093
def initialize(host, port_or_options = {},
               usessl = false, certs = nil, verify = true)
  super()
  @host = host
  begin
    options = port_or_options.to_hash
  rescue NoMethodError
    # for backward compatibility
    options = {}
    options[:port] = port_or_options
    if usessl
      options[:ssl] = create_ssl_params(certs, verify)
    end
  end
  @port = options[:port] || (options[:ssl] ? SSL_PORT : PORT)
  @tag_prefix = "RUBY"
  @tagno = 0
  @open_timeout = options[:open_timeout] || 30
  @idle_response_timeout = options[:idle_response_timeout] || 5
  @parser = ResponseParser.new
  @sock = tcp_socket(@host, @port)
  begin
    if options[:ssl]
      start_tls_session(options[:ssl])
      @usessl = true
    else
      @usessl = false
    end
    @responses = Hash.new([].freeze)
    @tagged_responses = {}
    @response_handlers = []
    @tagged_response_arrival = new_cond
    @continued_command_tag = nil
    @continuation_request_arrival = new_cond
    @continuation_request_exception = nil
    @idle_done_cond = nil
    @logout_command_tag = nil
    @debug_output_bol = true
    @exception = nil

    @greeting = get_response
    if @greeting.nil?
      raise Error, "connection closed"
    end
    if @greeting.name == "BYE"
      raise ByeResponseError, @greeting
    end

    @client_thread = Thread.current
    @receiver_thread = Thread.start {
      begin
        receive_responses
      rescue Exception
      end
    }
    @receiver_thread_terminating = false
  rescue Exception
    @sock.close
    raise
  end
end

Public Instance Methods

add_response_handler(handler = nil, &block) click to toggle source

Adds a response handler. For example, to detect when the server sends a new EXISTS response (which normally indicates new messages being added to the mailbox), add the following handler after selecting the mailbox:

imap.add_response_handler { |resp|
  if resp.kind_of?(Net::IMAP::UntaggedResponse) and resp.name == "EXISTS"
    puts "Mailbox now has #{resp.data} messages"
  end
}
# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 967
def add_response_handler(handler = nil, &block)
  raise ArgumentError, "two Procs are passed" if handler && block
  @response_handlers.push(block || handler)
end
append(mailbox, message, flags = nil, date_time = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a APPEND command to append the message to the end of the mailbox. The optional flags argument is an array of flags initially passed to the new message. The optional date_time argument specifies the creation time to assign to the new message; it defaults to the current time. For example:

imap.append("inbox", <<EOF.gsub(/\n/, "\r\n"), [:Seen], Time.now)
Subject: hello
From: shugo@ruby-lang.org
To: shugo@ruby-lang.org

hello world
EOF

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if the mailbox does not exist (it is not created automatically), or if the flags, date_time, or message arguments contain errors.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 755
def append(mailbox, message, flags = nil, date_time = nil)
  args = []
  if flags
    args.push(flags)
  end
  args.push(date_time) if date_time
  args.push(Literal.new(message))
  send_command("APPEND", mailbox, *args)
end
authenticate(auth_type, *args) click to toggle source

Sends an AUTHENTICATE command to authenticate the client. The auth_type parameter is a string that represents the authentication mechanism to be used. Currently Net::IMAP supports the following mechanisms:

PLAIN

Login using cleartext user and password. Secure with TLS. See Net::IMAP::PlainAuthenticator.

CRAM-MD5

DEPRECATED: Use PLAIN (or DIGEST-MD5) with TLS.

DIGEST-MD5

DEPRECATED by RFC6331. Must be secured using TLS. See Net::IMAP::DigestMD5Authenticator.

LOGIN

DEPRECATED: Use PLAIN.

Most mechanisms require two args: authentication identity (e.g. username) and credentials (e.g. a password). But each mechanism requires and allows different arguments; please consult the documentation for the specific mechanisms you are using. Several obsolete mechanisms are available for backwards compatibility. Using deprecated mechanisms will issue warnings.

Servers do not support all mechanisms and clients must not attempt to use a mechanism unless “AUTH=#{mechanism}” is listed as a capability. Clients must not attempt to authenticate or login when LOGINDISABLED is listed with the capabilities. Server capabilities, especially auth mechanisms, do change after calling starttls so they need to be checked again.

For example:

imap.authenticate('PLAIN', user, password)

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if authentication fails.

See Net::IMAP::Authenticators for more information on plugging in your own authenticator.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 412
def authenticate(auth_type, *args)
  authenticator = self.class.authenticator(auth_type, *args)
  send_command("AUTHENTICATE", auth_type) do |resp|
    if resp.instance_of?(ContinuationRequest)
      data = authenticator.process(resp.data.text.unpack("m")[0])
      s = [data].pack("m0")
      send_string_data(s)
      put_string(CRLF)
    end
  end
end
capability() click to toggle source

Sends a CAPABILITY command, and returns an array of capabilities that the server supports. Each capability is a string. See [IMAP] for a list of possible capabilities.

Note that the Net::IMAP class does not modify its behaviour according to the capabilities of the server; it is up to the user of the class to ensure that a certain capability is supported by a server before using it.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 321
def capability
  synchronize do
    send_command("CAPABILITY")
    return @responses.delete("CAPABILITY")[-1]
  end
end
check() click to toggle source

Sends a CHECK command to request a checkpoint of the currently selected mailbox. This performs implementation-specific housekeeping; for instance, reconciling the mailbox’s in-memory and on-disk state.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 769
def check
  send_command("CHECK")
end
close() click to toggle source

Sends a CLOSE command to close the currently selected mailbox. The CLOSE command permanently removes from the mailbox all messages that have the Deleted flag set.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 776
def close
  send_command("CLOSE")
end
copy(set, mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a COPY command to copy the specified message(s) to the end of the specified destination mailbox. The set parameter is a number, an array of numbers, or a Range object. The number is a message sequence number.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 909
def copy(set, mailbox)
  copy_internal("COPY", set, mailbox)
end
create(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a CREATE command to create a new mailbox.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if a mailbox with that name cannot be created.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 470
def create(mailbox)
  send_command("CREATE", mailbox)
end
delete(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a DELETE command to remove the mailbox.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if a mailbox with that name cannot be deleted, either because it does not exist or because the client does not have permission to delete it.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 479
def delete(mailbox)
  send_command("DELETE", mailbox)
end
disconnect() click to toggle source

Disconnects from the server.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 284
def disconnect
  return if disconnected?
  begin
    begin
      # try to call SSL::SSLSocket#io.
      @sock.io.shutdown
    rescue NoMethodError
      # @sock is not an SSL::SSLSocket.
      @sock.shutdown
    end
  rescue Errno::ENOTCONN
    # ignore `Errno::ENOTCONN: Socket is not connected' on some platforms.
  rescue Exception => e
    @receiver_thread.raise(e)
  end
  @receiver_thread.join
  synchronize do
    @sock.close
  end
  raise e if e
end
disconnected?() click to toggle source

Returns true if disconnected from the server.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 307
def disconnected?
  return @sock.closed?
end
examine(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a EXAMINE command to select a mailbox so that messages in the mailbox can be accessed. Behaves the same as select, except that the selected mailbox is identified as read-only.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if the mailbox does not exist or is for some reason non-examinable.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 459
def examine(mailbox)
  synchronize do
    @responses.clear
    send_command("EXAMINE", mailbox)
  end
end
expunge() click to toggle source

Sends a EXPUNGE command to permanently remove from the currently selected mailbox all messages that have the Deleted flag set.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 782
def expunge
  synchronize do
    send_command("EXPUNGE")
    return @responses.delete("EXPUNGE")
  end
end
fetch(set, attr, mod = nil) click to toggle source

Sends a FETCH command to retrieve data associated with a message in the mailbox.

The set parameter is a number or a range between two numbers, or an array of those. The number is a message sequence number, where -1 represents a ‘*’ for use in range notation like 100..-1 being interpreted as ‘100:*’. Beware that the exclude_end? property of a Range object is ignored, and the contents of a range are independent of the order of the range endpoints as per the protocol specification, so 1…5, 5..1 and 5…1 are all equivalent to 1..5.

attr is a list of attributes to fetch; see the documentation for Net::IMAP::FetchData for a list of valid attributes.

The return value is an array of Net::IMAP::FetchData or nil (instead of an empty array) if there is no matching message.

For example:

p imap.fetch(6..8, "UID")
#=> [#<Net::IMAP::FetchData seqno=6, attr={"UID"=>98}>, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::FetchData seqno=7, attr={"UID"=>99}>, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::FetchData seqno=8, attr={"UID"=>100}>]
p imap.fetch(6, "BODY[HEADER.FIELDS (SUBJECT)]")
#=> [#<Net::IMAP::FetchData seqno=6, attr={"BODY[HEADER.FIELDS (SUBJECT)]"=>"Subject: test\r\n\r\n"}>]
data = imap.uid_fetch(98, ["RFC822.SIZE", "INTERNALDATE"])[0]
p data.seqno
#=> 6
p data.attr["RFC822.SIZE"]
#=> 611
p data.attr["INTERNALDATE"]
#=> "12-Oct-2000 22:40:59 +0900"
p data.attr["UID"]
#=> 98
# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 873
def fetch(set, attr, mod = nil)
  return fetch_internal("FETCH", set, attr, mod)
end
getacl(mailbox) click to toggle source

Send the GETACL command along with a specified mailbox. If this mailbox exists, an array containing objects of Net::IMAP::MailboxACLItem will be returned.

The ACL extension is described in [EXT-ACL]

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 694
def getacl(mailbox)
  synchronize do
    send_command("GETACL", mailbox)
    return @responses.delete("ACL")[-1]
  end
end
getquota(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends the GETQUOTA command along with specified mailbox. If this mailbox exists, then an array containing a Net::IMAP::MailboxQuota object is returned. This command is generally only available to server admin.

The QUOTA extension is described in [EXT-QUOTA]

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 654
def getquota(mailbox)
  synchronize do
    send_command("GETQUOTA", mailbox)
    return @responses.delete("QUOTA")
  end
end
getquotaroot(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends the GETQUOTAROOT command along with the specified mailbox. This command is generally available to both admin and user. If this mailbox exists, it returns an array containing objects of type Net::IMAP::MailboxQuotaRoot and Net::IMAP::MailboxQuota.

The QUOTA extension is described in [EXT-QUOTA]

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 638
def getquotaroot(mailbox)
  synchronize do
    send_command("GETQUOTAROOT", mailbox)
    result = []
    result.concat(@responses.delete("QUOTAROOT"))
    result.concat(@responses.delete("QUOTA"))
    return result
  end
end
id(client_id=nil) click to toggle source

Sends an ID command, and returns a hash of the server’s response, or nil if the server does not identify itself.

Note that the user should first check if the server supports the ID capability. For example:

capabilities = imap.capability
if capabilities.include?("ID")
  id = imap.id(
    name: "my IMAP client (ruby)",
    version: MyIMAP::VERSION,
    "support-url": "mailto:bugs@example.com",
    os: RbConfig::CONFIG["host_os"],
  )
end

See [EXT-ID] for field definitions.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 345
def id(client_id=nil)
  synchronize do
    send_command("ID", ClientID.new(client_id))
    @responses.delete("ID")&.last
  end
end
idle(timeout = nil, &response_handler) click to toggle source

Sends an IDLE command that waits for notifications of new or expunged messages. Yields responses from the server during the IDLE.

Use idle_done to leave IDLE.

If timeout is given, this method returns after timeout seconds passed. timeout can be used for keep-alive. For example, the following code checks the connection for each 60 seconds.

loop do
  imap.idle(60) do |res|
    ...
  end
end
# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 1016
def idle(timeout = nil, &response_handler)
  raise LocalJumpError, "no block given" unless response_handler

  response = nil

  synchronize do
    tag = Thread.current[:net_imap_tag] = generate_tag
    put_string("#{tag} IDLE#{CRLF}")

    begin
      add_response_handler(&response_handler)
      @idle_done_cond = new_cond
      @idle_done_cond.wait(timeout)
      @idle_done_cond = nil
      if @receiver_thread_terminating
        raise @exception || Net::IMAP::Error.new("connection closed")
      end
    ensure
      unless @receiver_thread_terminating
        remove_response_handler(response_handler)
        put_string("DONE#{CRLF}")
        response = get_tagged_response(tag, "IDLE", @idle_response_timeout)
      end
    end
  end

  return response
end
idle_done() click to toggle source

Leaves IDLE.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 1046
def idle_done
  synchronize do
    if @idle_done_cond.nil?
      raise Net::IMAP::Error, "not during IDLE"
    end
    @idle_done_cond.signal
  end
end
list(refname, mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a LIST command, and returns a subset of names from the complete set of all names available to the client. refname provides a context (for instance, a base directory in a directory-based mailbox hierarchy). mailbox specifies a mailbox or (via wildcards) mailboxes under that context. Two wildcards may be used in mailbox: ‘*’, which matches all characters including the hierarchy delimiter (for instance, ‘/’ on a UNIX-hosted directory-based mailbox hierarchy); and ‘%’, which matches all characters except the hierarchy delimiter.

If refname is empty, mailbox is used directly to determine which mailboxes to match. If mailbox is empty, the root name of refname and the hierarchy delimiter are returned.

The return value is an array of Net::IMAP::MailboxList. For example:

imap.create("foo/bar")
imap.create("foo/baz")
p imap.list("", "foo/%")
#=> [#<Net::IMAP::MailboxList attr=[:Noselect], delim="/", name="foo/">, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::MailboxList attr=[:Noinferiors, :Marked], delim="/", name="foo/bar">, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::MailboxList attr=[:Noinferiors], delim="/", name="foo/baz">]
# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 536
def list(refname, mailbox)
  synchronize do
    send_command("LIST", refname, mailbox)
    return @responses.delete("LIST")
  end
end
login(user, password) click to toggle source

Sends a LOGIN command to identify the client and carries the plaintext password authenticating this user. Note that, unlike calling authenticate with an auth_type of “LOGIN”, login does not use the login authenticator.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if authentication fails.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 430
def login(user, password)
  send_command("LOGIN", user, password)
end
logout() click to toggle source

Sends a LOGOUT command to inform the server that the client is done with the connection.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 359
def logout
  send_command("LOGOUT")
end
lsub(refname, mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a LSUB command, and returns a subset of names from the set of names that the user has declared as being “active” or “subscribed.” refname and mailbox are interpreted as for list.

The return value is an array of Net::IMAP::MailboxList.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 707
def lsub(refname, mailbox)
  synchronize do
    send_command("LSUB", refname, mailbox)
    return @responses.delete("LSUB")
  end
end
move(set, mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a MOVE command to move the specified message(s) to the end of the specified destination mailbox. The set parameter is a number, an array of numbers, or a Range object. The number is a message sequence number.

The MOVE extension is described in [EXT-MOVE].

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 924
def move(set, mailbox)
  copy_internal("MOVE", set, mailbox)
end
namespace() click to toggle source

Sends a NAMESPACE command and returns the namespaces that are available. The NAMESPACE command allows a client to discover the prefixes of namespaces used by a server for personal mailboxes, other users’ mailboxes, and shared mailboxes.

The NAMESPACE extension predates [IMAP4rev1], so most IMAP servers support it. Many popular IMAP servers are configured with the default personal namespaces as ‘(“” “/”)`: no prefix and “/” hierarchy delimiter. In that common case, the naive client may not have any trouble naming mailboxes.

But many servers are configured with the default personal namespace as e.g. ‘(“INBOX.” “.”)`, placing all personal folders under INBOX, with “.” as the hierarchy delimiter. If the client does not check for this, but naively assumes it can use the same folder names for all servers, then folder creation (and listing, moving, etc) can lead to errors.

From RFC2342:

Although typically a server will support only a single Personal
Namespace, and a single Other User's Namespace, circumstances exist
where there MAY be multiples of these, and a client MUST be prepared
for them. If a client is configured such that it is required to create
a certain mailbox, there can be circumstances where it is unclear which
Personal Namespaces it should create the mailbox in. In these
situations a client SHOULD let the user select which namespaces to
create the mailbox in.

The user of this method should first check if the server supports the NAMESPACE capability. The return value is a Net::IMAP::Namespaces object which has personal, other, and shared fields, each an array of Net::IMAP::Namespace objects. These arrays will be empty when the server responds with nil.

For example:

capabilities = imap.capability
if capabilities.include?("NAMESPACE")
  namespaces = imap.namespace
  if namespace = namespaces.personal.first
    prefix = namespace.prefix  # e.g. "" or "INBOX."
    delim  = namespace.delim   # e.g. "/" or "."
    # personal folders should use the prefix and delimiter
    imap.create(prefix + "foo")
    imap.create(prefix + "bar")
    imap.create(prefix + %w[path to my folder].join(delim))
  end
end

The NAMESPACE extension is described in [EXT-NAMESPACE]

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 593
def namespace
  synchronize do
    send_command("NAMESPACE")
    return @responses.delete("NAMESPACE")[-1]
  end
end
noop() click to toggle source

Sends a NOOP command to the server. It does nothing.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 353
def noop
  send_command("NOOP")
end
remove_response_handler(handler) click to toggle source

Removes the response handler.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 973
def remove_response_handler(handler)
  @response_handlers.delete(handler)
end
rename(mailbox, newname) click to toggle source

Sends a RENAME command to change the name of the mailbox to newname.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if a mailbox with the name mailbox cannot be renamed to newname for whatever reason; for instance, because mailbox does not exist, or because there is already a mailbox with the name newname.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 490
def rename(mailbox, newname)
  send_command("RENAME", mailbox, newname)
end
select(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a SELECT command to select a mailbox so that messages in the mailbox can be accessed.

After you have selected a mailbox, you may retrieve the number of items in that mailbox from +@responses[-1]+, and the number of recent messages from +@responses[-1]+. Note that these values can change if new messages arrive during a session; see add_response_handler for a way of detecting this event.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if the mailbox does not exist or is for some reason non-selectable.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 446
def select(mailbox)
  synchronize do
    @responses.clear
    send_command("SELECT", mailbox)
  end
end
setacl(mailbox, user, rights) click to toggle source

Sends the SETACL command along with mailbox, user and the rights that user is to have on that mailbox. If rights is nil, then that user will be stripped of any rights to that mailbox.

The ACL extension is described in [EXT-ACL]

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 681
def setacl(mailbox, user, rights)
  if rights.nil?
    send_command("SETACL", mailbox, user, "")
  else
    send_command("SETACL", mailbox, user, rights)
  end
end
setquota(mailbox, quota) click to toggle source

Sends a SETQUOTA command along with the specified mailbox and quota. If quota is nil, then quota will be unset for that mailbox. Typically one needs to be logged in as a server admin for this to work.

The QUOTA extension is described in [EXT-QUOTA]

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 667
def setquota(mailbox, quota)
  if quota.nil?
    data = '()'
  else
    data = '(STORAGE ' + quota.to_s + ')'
  end
  send_command("SETQUOTA", mailbox, RawData.new(data))
end
sort(sort_keys, search_keys, charset) click to toggle source

Sends a SORT command to sort messages in the mailbox. Returns an array of message sequence numbers. For example:

p imap.sort(["FROM"], ["ALL"], "US-ASCII")
#=> [1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 4, 9]
p imap.sort(["DATE"], ["SUBJECT", "hello"], "US-ASCII")
#=> [6, 7, 8, 1]

The SORT extension is described in [EXT-SORT-THREAD].

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 944
def sort(sort_keys, search_keys, charset)
  return sort_internal("SORT", sort_keys, search_keys, charset)
end
starttls(options = {}, verify = true) click to toggle source

Sends a STARTTLS command to start TLS session.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 364
def starttls(options = {}, verify = true)
  send_command("STARTTLS") do |resp|
    if resp.kind_of?(TaggedResponse) && resp.name == "OK"
      begin
        # for backward compatibility
        certs = options.to_str
        options = create_ssl_params(certs, verify)
      rescue NoMethodError
      end
      start_tls_session(options)
    end
  end
end
status(mailbox, attr) click to toggle source

Sends a STATUS command, and returns the status of the indicated mailbox. attr is a list of one or more attributes whose statuses are to be requested. Supported attributes include:

MESSAGES:: the number of messages in the mailbox.
RECENT:: the number of recent messages in the mailbox.
UNSEEN:: the number of unseen messages in the mailbox.

The return value is a hash of attributes. For example:

p imap.status("inbox", ["MESSAGES", "RECENT"])
#=> {"RECENT"=>0, "MESSAGES"=>44}

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if status values for mailbox cannot be returned; for instance, because it does not exist.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 730
def status(mailbox, attr)
  synchronize do
    send_command("STATUS", mailbox, attr)
    return @responses.delete("STATUS")[-1].attr
  end
end
store(set, attr, flags) click to toggle source

Sends a STORE command to alter data associated with messages in the mailbox, in particular their flags. The set parameter is a number, an array of numbers, or a Range object. Each number is a message sequence number. attr is the name of a data item to store: ‘FLAGS’ will replace the message’s flag list with the provided one, ‘+FLAGS’ will add the provided flags, and ‘-FLAGS’ will remove them. flags is a list of flags.

The return value is an array of Net::IMAP::FetchData. For example:

p imap.store(6..8, "+FLAGS", [:Deleted])
#=> [#<Net::IMAP::FetchData seqno=6, attr={"FLAGS"=>[:Seen, :Deleted]}>, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::FetchData seqno=7, attr={"FLAGS"=>[:Seen, :Deleted]}>, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::FetchData seqno=8, attr={"FLAGS"=>[:Seen, :Deleted]}>]
# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 896
def store(set, attr, flags)
  return store_internal("STORE", set, attr, flags)
end
subscribe(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a SUBSCRIBE command to add the specified mailbox name to the server’s set of “active” or “subscribed” mailboxes as returned by lsub.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if mailbox cannot be subscribed to; for instance, because it does not exist.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 500
def subscribe(mailbox)
  send_command("SUBSCRIBE", mailbox)
end
thread(algorithm, search_keys, charset) click to toggle source

Similar to search, but returns message sequence numbers in threaded format, as a Net::IMAP::ThreadMember tree. The supported algorithms are:

ORDEREDSUBJECT

split into single-level threads according to subject, ordered by date.

REFERENCES

split into threads by parent/child relationships determined by which message is a reply to which.

Unlike search, charset is a required argument. US-ASCII and UTF-8 are sample values.

The THREAD extension is described in [EXT-SORT-THREAD].

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 990
def thread(algorithm, search_keys, charset)
  return thread_internal("THREAD", algorithm, search_keys, charset)
end
uid_copy(set, mailbox) click to toggle source

Similar to copy, but set contains unique identifiers.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 914
def uid_copy(set, mailbox)
  copy_internal("UID COPY", set, mailbox)
end
uid_fetch(set, attr, mod = nil) click to toggle source

Similar to fetch, but set contains unique identifiers.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 878
def uid_fetch(set, attr, mod = nil)
  return fetch_internal("UID FETCH", set, attr, mod)
end
uid_move(set, mailbox) click to toggle source

Similar to move, but set contains unique identifiers.

The MOVE extension is described in [EXT-MOVE].

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 931
def uid_move(set, mailbox)
  copy_internal("UID MOVE", set, mailbox)
end
uid_sort(sort_keys, search_keys, charset) click to toggle source

Similar to sort, but returns an array of unique identifiers.

The SORT extension is described in [EXT-SORT-THREAD].

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 951
def uid_sort(sort_keys, search_keys, charset)
  return sort_internal("UID SORT", sort_keys, search_keys, charset)
end
uid_store(set, attr, flags) click to toggle source

Similar to store, but set contains unique identifiers.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 901
def uid_store(set, attr, flags)
  return store_internal("UID STORE", set, attr, flags)
end
uid_thread(algorithm, search_keys, charset) click to toggle source

Similar to thread, but returns unique identifiers instead of message sequence numbers.

The THREAD extension is described in [EXT-SORT-THREAD].

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 998
def uid_thread(algorithm, search_keys, charset)
  return thread_internal("UID THREAD", algorithm, search_keys, charset)
end
unsubscribe(mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a UNSUBSCRIBE command to remove the specified mailbox name from the server’s set of “active” or “subscribed” mailboxes.

A Net::IMAP::NoResponseError is raised if mailbox cannot be unsubscribed from; for instance, because the client is not currently subscribed to it.

# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 510
def unsubscribe(mailbox)
  send_command("UNSUBSCRIBE", mailbox)
end
xlist(refname, mailbox) click to toggle source

Sends a XLIST command, and returns a subset of names from the complete set of all names available to the client. refname provides a context (for instance, a base directory in a directory-based mailbox hierarchy). mailbox specifies a mailbox or (via wildcards) mailboxes under that context. Two wildcards may be used in mailbox: ‘*’, which matches all characters including the hierarchy delimiter (for instance, ‘/’ on a UNIX-hosted directory-based mailbox hierarchy); and ‘%’, which matches all characters except the hierarchy delimiter.

If refname is empty, mailbox is used directly to determine which mailboxes to match. If mailbox is empty, the root name of refname and the hierarchy delimiter are returned.

The XLIST command is like the LIST command except that the flags returned refer to the function of the folder/mailbox, e.g. :Sent

The return value is an array of Net::IMAP::MailboxList. For example:

imap.create("foo/bar")
imap.create("foo/baz")
p imap.xlist("", "foo/%")
#=> [#<Net::IMAP::MailboxList attr=[:Noselect], delim="/", name="foo/">, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::MailboxList attr=[:Noinferiors, :Marked], delim="/", name="foo/bar">, \\
     #<Net::IMAP::MailboxList attr=[:Noinferiors], delim="/", name="foo/baz">]
# File net-imap-0.3.1/lib/net/imap.rb, line 625
def xlist(refname, mailbox)
  synchronize do
    send_command("XLIST", refname, mailbox)
    return @responses.delete("XLIST")
  end
end

Mailbox Name Attributes, Base attributes

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Constants

HAS_CHILDREN

The presence of this attribute indicates that the mailbox has child mailboxes. A server SHOULD NOT set this attribute if there are child mailboxes and the user does not have permission to access any of them. In this case, HasNoChildren SHOULD be used. In many cases, however, a server may not be able to efficiently compute whether a user has access to any child mailboxes. Note that even though the HasChildren attribute for a mailbox must be correct at the time of processing the mailbox, a client must be prepared to deal with a situation when a mailbox is marked with the HasChildren attribute, but no child mailbox appears in the response to the LIST command. This might happen, for example, due to child mailboxes being deleted or made inaccessible to the user (using access control) by another client before the server is able to list them.

It is an error for the server to return both a HasChildren and a HasNoChildren attribute in the same LIST response. A client that encounters a LIST response with both HasChildren and HasNoChildren attributes present should act as if both are absent in the LIST response.

HAS_NO_CHILDREN

The presence of this attribute indicates that the mailbox has NO child mailboxes that are accessible to the currently authenticated user.

It is an error for the server to return both a HasChildren and a HasNoChildren attribute in the same LIST response. A client that encounters a LIST response with both HasChildren and HasNoChildren attributes present should act as if both are absent in the LIST response.

Note: the HasNoChildren attribute should not be confused with the NoInferiors attribute, which indicates that no child mailboxes exist now and none can be created in the future.

MARKED

The mailbox has been marked “interesting” by the server; the mailbox probably contains messages that have been added since the last time the mailbox was selected.

If it is not feasible for the server to determine whether or not the mailbox is “interesting”, the server SHOULD NOT send either Marked or Unmarked. The server MUST NOT send more than one of Marked, Unmarked, and Noselect for a single mailbox, and it MAY send none of these.

NOINFERIORS

Mailbox attribute indicating it is not possible for any child levels of hierarchy to exist under this name; no child levels exist now and none can be created in the future children.

The client must treat the presence of the NoInferiors attribute as if the HasNoChildren attribute was also sent by the server

NONEXISTENT

The “NonExistent” attribute indicates that a mailbox name does not refer to an existing mailbox. Note that this attribute is not meaningful by itself, as mailbox names that match the canonical LIST pattern but don’t exist must not be returned unless one of the two conditions listed below is also satisfied:

  1. The mailbox name also satisfies the selection criteria (for example, it is subscribed and the “SUBSCRIBED” selection option has been specified).

  2. “RECURSIVEMATCH” has been specified, and the mailbox name has at least one descendant mailbox name that does not match the LIST pattern and does match the selection criteria.

In practice, this means that the “NonExistent” attribute is usually returned with one or more of “Subscribed”, “Remote”, “HasChildren”, or the CHILDINFO extended data item.

The client must treat the presence of the NonExistent attribute as if the NoSelect attribute was also sent by the server

NOSELECT

Mailbox attribute indicating it is not possible to use this name as a selectable mailbox.

REMOTE

The mailbox is a remote mailbox.

SUBSCRIBED

The mailbox name was subscribed to using the SUBSCRIBE command.

UNMARKED

The mailbox does not contain any additional messages since the last time the mailbox was selected.

If it is not feasible for the server to determine whether or not the mailbox is “interesting”, the server SHOULD NOT send either Marked or Unmarked. The server MUST NOT send more than one of Marked, Unmarked, and Noselect for a single mailbox, and it MAY send none of these.

Mailbox Name Attributes, Special Use

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Constants

ALL

Mailbox attribute indicating that this mailbox presents all messages in the user’s message store. Implementations MAY omit some messages, such as, perhaps, those in Trash and Junk. When this special use is supported, it is almost certain to represent a virtual mailbox

ARCHIVE

Mailbox attribute indicating that this mailbox is used to archive messages. The meaning of an “archival” mailbox is server dependent; typically, it will be used to get messages out of the inbox, or otherwise keep them out of the user’s way, while still making them accessible

DRAFTS

Mailbox attribute indicating that this mailbox is used to hold draft messages – typically, messages that are being composed but have not yet been sent. In some server implementations, this might be a virtual mailbox, containing messages from other mailboxes that are marked with the “Draft” message flag. Alternatively, this might just be advice that a client put drafts here

JUNK

Mailbox attribute indicating that this mailbox is where messages deemed to be junk mail are held. Some server implementations might put messages here automatically. Alternatively, this might just be advice to a client-side spam filter.

SENT

Mailbox attribute indicating that this mailbox is used to hold copies of messages that have been sent. Some server implementations might put messages here automatically. Alternatively, this might just be advice that a client save sent messages here.

TRASH

Mailbox attribute indicating that this mailbox is used to hold messages that have been deleted or marked for deletion. In some server implementations, this might be a virtual mailbox, containing messages from other mailboxes that are marked with the “Deleted” message flag. Alternatively, this might just be advice that a client that chooses not to use the IMAP “Deleted” model should use as its trash location. In server implementations that strictly expect the IMAP “Deleted” model, this special use is likely not to be supported.

Message Flags: system flags

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Constants

ANSWERED

Flag indicating a message has been answered.

DELETED

Flag indicating a message has been marked for deletion. This will occur when the mailbox is closed or expunged.

DRAFT

Flag indicating a message is only a draft or work-in-progress version.

FLAGGED

A message flag indicating a message has been flagged for special or urgent attention.

Also a mailbox special use attribute, which indicates that this mailbox presents all messages marked in some way as “important”. When this special use is supported, it is likely to represent a virtual mailbox collecting messages (from other mailboxes) that are marked with the “Flagged” message flag.

RECENT

Flag indicating that the message is “recent,” meaning that this session is the first session in which the client has been notified of this message.

This flag was defined by IMAP4rev1 [RFC-3501](www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3501.html), and has been deprecated by IMAP4rev2 [RFC-9051](www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9051.html).

SEEN

Flag indicating a message has been read.