Extended maintenance of Ruby versions 1.8.7 and 1.9.2 ended on July 31, 2014. Read more

In Files

  • net/http.rb

Net::HTTPHeader

Header module.

Provides access to @header in the mixed-into class as a hash-like object, except with case-insensitive keys. Also provides methods for accessing commonly-used header values in a more convenient format.

Public Instance Methods

[](key) click to toggle source

Returns the header field corresponding to the case-insensitive key. For example, a key of “Content-Type” might return “text/html”

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1316
def [](key)
  a = @header[key.downcase] or return nil
  a.join(', ')
end
            
[]=(key, val) click to toggle source

Sets the header field corresponding to the case-insensitive key.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1322
def []=(key, val)
  unless val
    @header.delete key.downcase
    return val
  end
  @header[key.downcase] = [val]
end
            
add_field(key, val) click to toggle source
Ruby 1.8.3

Adds header field instead of replace. Second argument val must be a String. See also []=, [] and get_fields.

request.add_field 'X-My-Header', 'a'
p request['X-My-Header']              #=> "a"
p request.get_fields('X-My-Header')   #=> ["a"]
request.add_field 'X-My-Header', 'b'
p request['X-My-Header']              #=> "a, b"
p request.get_fields('X-My-Header')   #=> ["a", "b"]
request.add_field 'X-My-Header', 'c'
p request['X-My-Header']              #=> "a, b, c"
p request.get_fields('X-My-Header')   #=> ["a", "b", "c"]
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1345
def add_field(key, val)
  if @header.key?(key.downcase)
    @header[key.downcase].push val
  else
    @header[key.downcase] = [val]
  end
end
            
basic_auth(account, password) click to toggle source

Set the Authorization: header for “Basic” authorization.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1618
def basic_auth(account, password)
  @header['authorization'] = [basic_encode(account, password)]
end
            
canonical_each() click to toggle source
Alias for: each_capitalized
chunked?() click to toggle source

Returns “true” if the “transfer-encoding” header is present and set to “chunked”. This is an HTTP/1.1 feature, allowing the the content to be sent in “chunks” without at the outset stating the entire content length.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1518
def chunked?
  return false unless @header['transfer-encoding']
  field = self['Transfer-Encoding']
  (/(?:\A|[^\-\w])chunked(?![\-\w])/i =~ field) ? true : false
end
            
connection_close?() click to toggle source
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1632
def connection_close?
  tokens(@header['connection']).include?('close') or
  tokens(@header['proxy-connection']).include?('close')
end
            
connection_keep_alive?() click to toggle source
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1637
def connection_keep_alive?
  tokens(@header['connection']).include?('keep-alive') or
  tokens(@header['proxy-connection']).include?('keep-alive')
end
            
content_length() click to toggle source

Returns an Integer object which represents the Content-Length: header field or nil if that field is not provided.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1499
def content_length
  return nil unless key?('Content-Length')
  len = self['Content-Length'].slice(/\d+/) or
      raise HTTPHeaderSyntaxError, 'wrong Content-Length format'
  len.to_i
end
            
content_length=(len) click to toggle source
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1506
def content_length=(len)
  unless len
    @header.delete 'content-length'
    return nil
  end
  @header['content-length'] = [len.to_i.to_s]
end
            
content_range() click to toggle source

Returns a Range object which represents Content-Range: header field. This indicates, for a partial entity body, where this fragment fits inside the full entity body, as range of byte offsets.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1527
def content_range
  return nil unless @header['content-range']
  m = %r<bytes\s+(\d+)-(\d+)/(\d+|\*)>i.match(self['Content-Range']) or
      raise HTTPHeaderSyntaxError, 'wrong Content-Range format'
  m[1].to_i .. m[2].to_i
end
            
content_type() click to toggle source

Returns a content type string such as “text/html”. This method returns nil if Content-Type: header field does not exist.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1542
def content_type
  return nil unless main_type()
  if sub_type()
  then "#{main_type()}/#{sub_type()}"
  else main_type()
  end
end
            
content_type=(type, params = {}) click to toggle source
Alias for: set_content_type
delete(key) click to toggle source

Removes a header field.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1413
def delete(key)
  @header.delete(key.downcase)
end
            
each() click to toggle source
Alias for: each_header
each_capitalized() click to toggle source

As for each_header, except the keys are provided in capitalized form.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1428
def each_capitalized
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  @header.each do |k,v|
    yield capitalize(k), v.join(', ')
  end
end
            
Also aliased as: canonical_each
each_capitalized_name() click to toggle source

Iterates for each capitalized header names.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1397
def each_capitalized_name  #:yield: +key+
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  @header.each_key do |k|
    yield capitalize(k)
  end
end
            
each_header() click to toggle source

Iterates for each header names and values.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1379
def each_header   #:yield: +key+, +value+
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  @header.each do |k,va|
    yield k, va.join(', ')
  end
end
            
Also aliased as: each
each_key() click to toggle source
Alias for: each_name
each_name() click to toggle source

Iterates for each header names.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1389
def each_name(&block)   #:yield: +key+
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  @header.each_key(&block)
end
            
Also aliased as: each_key
each_value() click to toggle source

Iterates for each header values.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1405
def each_value   #:yield: +value+
  block_given? or return enum_for(__method__)
  @header.each_value do |va|
    yield va.join(', ')
  end
end
            
fetch(key, *args) click to toggle source

Returns the header field corresponding to the case-insensitive key. Returns the default value args, or the result of the block, or raises an IndexErrror if there’s no header field named key See Hash#fetch

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1373
def fetch(key, *args, &block)   #:yield: +key+
  a = @header.fetch(key.downcase, *args, &block)
  a.kind_of?(Array) ? a.join(', ') : a
end
            
form_data=(params, sep = '&') click to toggle source
Alias for: set_form_data
get_fields(key) click to toggle source
Ruby 1.8.3

Returns an array of header field strings corresponding to the case-insensitive key. This method allows you to get duplicated header fields without any processing. See also [].

p response.get_fields('Set-Cookie')
  #=> ["session=al98axx; expires=Fri, 31-Dec-1999 23:58:23",
       "query=rubyscript; expires=Fri, 31-Dec-1999 23:58:23"]
p response['Set-Cookie']
  #=> "session=al98axx; expires=Fri, 31-Dec-1999 23:58:23, query=rubyscript; expires=Fri, 31-Dec-1999 23:58:23"
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1364
def get_fields(key)
  return nil unless @header[key.downcase]
  @header[key.downcase].dup
end
            
initialize_http_header(initheader) click to toggle source
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1299
def initialize_http_header(initheader)
  @header = {}
  return unless initheader
  initheader.each do |key, value|
    warn "net/http: warning: duplicated HTTP header: #{key}" if key?(key) and $VERBOSE
    @header[key.downcase] = [value.strip]
  end
end
            
key?(key) click to toggle source

true if key header exists.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1418
def key?(key)
  @header.key?(key.downcase)
end
            
main_type() click to toggle source

Returns a content type string such as “text”. This method returns nil if Content-Type: header field does not exist.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1552
def main_type
  return nil unless @header['content-type']
  self['Content-Type'].split(';').first.to_s.split('/')[0].to_s.strip
end
            
proxy_basic_auth(account, password) click to toggle source

Set Proxy-Authorization: header for “Basic” authorization.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1623
def proxy_basic_auth(account, password)
  @header['proxy-authorization'] = [basic_encode(account, password)]
end
            
range() click to toggle source

Returns an Array of Range objects which represents Range: header field, or nil if there is no such header.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1444
def range
  return nil unless @header['range']
  self['Range'].split(/,/).map {|spec|
    m = /bytes\s*=\s*(\d+)?\s*-\s*(\d+)?/i.match(spec) or
            raise HTTPHeaderSyntaxError, "wrong Range: #{spec}"
    d1 = m[1].to_i
    d2 = m[2].to_i
    if    m[1] and m[2] then  d1..d2
    elsif m[1]          then  d1..-1
    elsif          m[2] then -d2..-1
    else
      raise HTTPHeaderSyntaxError, 'range is not specified'
    end
  }
end
            
range=(r, e = nil) click to toggle source
Alias for: set_range
range_length() click to toggle source

The length of the range represented in Content-Range: header.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1535
def range_length
  r = content_range() or return nil
  r.end - r.begin + 1
end
            
set_content_type(type, params = {}) click to toggle source

Set Content-Type: header field by type and params. type must be a String, params must be a Hash.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1582
def set_content_type(type, params = {})
  @header['content-type'] = [type + params.map{|k,v|"; #{k}=#{v}"}.join('')]
end
            
Also aliased as: content_type=
set_form_data(params, sep = '&') click to toggle source

Set header fields and a body from HTML form data. params should be a Hash containing HTML form data. Optional argument sep means data record separator.

This method also set Content-Type: header field to application/x-www-form-urlencoded.

Example:

http.form_data = {"q" => "ruby", "lang" => "en"}
http.form_data = {"q" => ["ruby", "perl"], "lang" => "en"}
http.set_form_data({"q" => "ruby", "lang" => "en"}, ';')
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1600
def set_form_data(params, sep = '&')
  self.body = params.map {|k, v| encode_kvpair(k, v) }.flatten.join(sep)
  self.content_type = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded'
end
            
Also aliased as: form_data=
set_range(r, e = nil) click to toggle source

Set Range: header from Range (arg r) or beginning index and length from it (arg idx&len).

req.range = (0..1023)
req.set_range 0, 1023
 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1466
def set_range(r, e = nil)
  unless r
    @header.delete 'range'
    return r
  end
  r = (r...r+e) if e
  case r
  when Numeric
    n = r.to_i
    rangestr = (n > 0 ? "0-#{n-1}" : "-#{-n}")
  when Range
    first = r.first
    last = r.last
    last -= 1 if r.exclude_end?
    if last == -1
      rangestr = (first > 0 ? "#{first}-" : "-#{-first}")
    else
      raise HTTPHeaderSyntaxError, 'range.first is negative' if first < 0
      raise HTTPHeaderSyntaxError, 'range.last is negative' if last < 0
      raise HTTPHeaderSyntaxError, 'must be .first < .last' if first > last
      rangestr = "#{first}-#{last}"
    end
  else
    raise TypeError, 'Range/Integer is required'
  end
  @header['range'] = ["bytes=#{rangestr}"]
  r
end
            
Also aliased as: range=
sub_type() click to toggle source

Returns a content type string such as “html”. This method returns nil if Content-Type: header field does not exist or sub-type is not given (e.g. “Content-Type: text”).

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1560
def sub_type
  return nil unless @header['content-type']
  main, sub = *self['Content-Type'].split(';').first.to_s.split('/')
  return nil unless sub
  sub.strip
end
            
to_hash() click to toggle source

Returns a Hash consist of header names and values.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1423
def to_hash
  @header.dup
end
            
type_params() click to toggle source

Returns content type parameters as a Hash as like {“charset” => “iso-2022-jp”}.

 
               # File net/http.rb, line 1569
def type_params
  result = {}
  list = self['Content-Type'].to_s.split(';')
  list.shift
  list.each do |param|
    k, v = *param.split('=', 2)
    result[k.strip] = v.strip
  end
  result
end