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  • matrix.rb

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Vector

The Vector class represents a mathematical vector, which is useful in its own right, and also constitutes a row or column of a Matrix.

Method Catalogue

To create a Vector:

  • Vector.[](*array)

  • Vector.elements(array, copy = true)

To access elements:

  • [](i)

To enumerate the elements:

  • #each2(v)

  • #collect2(v)

Vector arithmetic:

  • *(x) "is matrix or number"

  • +(v)

  • -(v)

Vector functions:

  • #inner_product(v)

  • #collect

  • #map

  • #map2(v)

  • #r

  • #size

Conversion to other data types:

  • #covector

  • #to_a

  • #coerce(other)

String representations:

  • #to_s

  • #inspect

Public Class Methods

[](*array) click to toggle source

Creates a Vector from a list of elements.

Vector[7, 4, ...]
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1005
def Vector.[](*array)
  new(:init_elements, array, copy = false)
end
            
elements(array, copy = true) click to toggle source

Creates a vector from an Array. The optional second argument specifies whether the array itself or a copy is used internally.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1013
def Vector.elements(array, copy = true)
  new(:init_elements, array, copy)
end
            
new(method, array, copy) click to toggle source

For internal use.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1020
def initialize(method, array, copy)
  self.send(method, array, copy)
end
            

Public Instance Methods

*(x) click to toggle source

Multiplies the vector by x, where x is a number or another vector.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1120
def *(x)
  case x
  when Numeric
    els = @elements.collect{|e| e * x}
    Vector.elements(els, false)
  when Matrix
    Matrix.column_vector(self) * x
  else
    s, x = x.coerce(self)
    s * x
  end
end
            
+(v) click to toggle source

Vector addition.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1136
def +(v)
  case v
  when Vector
    Vector.Raise ErrDimensionMismatch if size != v.size
    els = collect2(v) {
      |v1, v2|
      v1 + v2
    }
    Vector.elements(els, false)
  when Matrix
    Matrix.column_vector(self) + v
  else
    s, x = v.coerce(self)
    s + x
  end
end
            
-(v) click to toggle source

Vector subtraction.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1156
def -(v)
  case v
  when Vector
    Vector.Raise ErrDimensionMismatch if size != v.size
    els = collect2(v) {
      |v1, v2|
      v1 - v2
    }
    Vector.elements(els, false)
  when Matrix
    Matrix.column_vector(self) - v
  else
    s, x = v.coerce(self)
    s - x
  end
end
            
==(other) click to toggle source

Returns true iff the two vectors have the same elements in the same order.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1085
def ==(other)
  return false unless Vector === other
  
  other.compare_by(@elements)
end
            
Also aliased as: eql?
[](i) click to toggle source

Returns element number i (starting at zero) of the vector.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1040
def [](i)
  @elements[i]
end
            
clone() click to toggle source

Return a copy of the vector.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1102
def clone
  Vector.elements(@elements)
end
            
coerce(other) click to toggle source

FIXME: describe #coerce.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1248
def coerce(other)
  case other
  when Numeric
    return Scalar.new(other), self
  else
    raise TypeError, "#{self.class} can't be coerced into #{other.class}"
  end
end
            
collect() click to toggle source

Like Array#collect.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1195
def collect # :yield: e
  els = @elements.collect {
    |v|
    yield v
  }
  Vector.elements(els, false)
end
            
Also aliased as: map
collect2(v) click to toggle source

Collects (as in Enumerable#collect) over the elements of this vector and v in conjunction.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1070
def collect2(v) # :yield: e1, e2
  Vector.Raise ErrDimensionMismatch if size != v.size
  (0 .. size - 1).collect do
    |i|
    yield @elements[i], v[i]
  end
end
            
compare_by(elements) click to toggle source

For internal use.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1095
def compare_by(elements)
  @elements == elements
end
            
covector() click to toggle source

Creates a single-row matrix from this vector.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1234
def covector
  Matrix.row_vector(self)
end
            
each2(v) click to toggle source

Iterate over the elements of this vector and v in conjunction.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1058
def each2(v) # :yield: e1, e2
  Vector.Raise ErrDimensionMismatch if size != v.size
  0.upto(size - 1) do
    |i|
    yield @elements[i], v[i]
  end
end
            
eql?(other) click to toggle source
Alias for: ==
hash() click to toggle source

Return a hash-code for the vector.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1109
def hash
  @elements.hash
end
            
init_elements(array, copy) click to toggle source

For internal use.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1027
def init_elements(array, copy)
  if copy
    @elements = array.dup
  else
    @elements = array
  end
end
            
inner_product(v) click to toggle source

Returns the inner product of this vector with the other.

Vector[4,7].inner_product Vector[10,1]  => 47
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1181
def inner_product(v)
  Vector.Raise ErrDimensionMismatch if size != v.size
  
  p = 0
  each2(v) {
    |v1, v2|
    p += v1 * v2
  }
  p
end
            
inspect() click to toggle source

Overrides Object#inspect

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1271
def inspect
  str = "Vector"+@elements.inspect
end
            
map() click to toggle source
Alias for: collect
map2(v) click to toggle source

Like #collect2, but returns a Vector instead of an Array.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1207
def map2(v) # :yield: e1, e2
  els = collect2(v) {
    |v1, v2|
    yield v1, v2
  }
  Vector.elements(els, false)
end
            
r() click to toggle source

Returns the modulus (Pythagorean distance) of the vector.

Vector[5,8,2].r => 9.643650761
 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1219
def r
  v = 0
  for e in @elements
    v += e*e
  end
  return Math.sqrt(v)
end
            
size() click to toggle source

Returns the number of elements in the vector.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1047
def size
  @elements.size
end
            
to_a() click to toggle source

Returns the elements of the vector in an array.

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1241
def to_a
  @elements.dup
end
            
to_s() click to toggle source

Overrides Object#to_s

 
               # File matrix.rb, line 1264
def to_s
  "Vector[" + @elements.join(", ") + "]"
end